Agrégateur de flux

Interpretive Summaries, May 2018

Journal of Dairy Science -

Invited review: Learning from the future—A vision for dairy farms and cows in 2067. By Britt et al., page 3722. During the next 50 years, the global population will reach 10.4 billion and per capita consumption of dairy products will increase. Climate change will shift dairy farms to areas with adequate water, and dairying will continue to provide nutrients sustainably. Dairy cows will be healthier and milk production could double. Technologies linked to epigenomics and microbiomics will be adopted, along with increased automation and greater focus on agroecology and sustainability.

Silage review: Foodborne pathogens in silage and their mitigation by silage additives

Journal of Dairy Science -

Silage is one of the main ingredients in dairy cattle diets and it is an important source of nutrients, particularly energy and digestible fiber. Unlike properly made and managed silage, poorly made or contaminated silage can also be a source of pathogenic bacteria that may decrease dairy cow performance, reduce the safety and quality dairy products, and compromise animal and human health. Some of the pathogenic bacteria that are frequently or occasionally associated with silage are enterobacteria, Listeria, Bacillus spp., Clostridium spp., and Salmonella.

Silage review: Safety considerations during silage making and feeding

Journal of Dairy Science -

Silage-related injury knows no age boundary as workers and bystanders of all ages have been killed in silage accidents. Even the best employee can become frustrated with malfunctioning equipment and poor weather conditions and take a hazardous shortcut, or misjudge a situation and take a risky action. At least 6 hazards are encountered in managing silage in bunker silos and drive-over piles that endanger lives: tractor or truck rollover, run-over by or entanglement in machinery, fall from height, crushing by an avalanche or collapsing silage, silage gases, and complacency or fatigue.

Silage review: Silage feeding management: Silage characteristics and dairy cow feeding behavior

Journal of Dairy Science -

Feeding environment and feed accessibility influence the dairy cow's response to the ration and forage composition. Fiber content, physical form, and fermentability influence feeding behavior, feed intake, and overall cow metabolic and lactational responses to forage. It is possible to vary eating time of lactating dairy cattle by over 1 h/d by changing dietary silage fiber content, digestibility, and particle size. Optimizing silage particle size is important because excessively long particles increase the necessary chewing to swallow a bolus of feed, thereby increasing eating time.

Silage review: Animal and human health risks from silage

Journal of Dairy Science -

Silage may contain several agents that are potentially hazardous to animal health, the safety of milk or other animal food products, or both. This paper reviews published literature about microbial hazards, plant toxins, and chemical hazards. Microbial hazards include Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium bovis, and various mold species. High concentrations of C. botulinum in silage have been associated with cattle botulism.

Silage review: Recent advances and future technologies for baled silages

Journal of Dairy Science -

Although the concept of ensiling large-round or large-square bales dates back to the late 1970s, many refinements have been made to both equipment and management since that time, resulting in much greater acceptance by small or mid-sized dairy or beef producers. This silage preservation technique is attractive to producers for several reasons, but the primary advantage is a reduced risk of weather damage to valuable forage crops compared with preservation as dry hay. Most core principles for making high-quality precision-chopped silages also apply to baled silages; among these, establishing and subsequently maintaining anaerobiosis are priorities.

Silage review: Using molecular approaches to define the microbial ecology of silage

Journal of Dairy Science -

Ensiling of forages was recognized as a microbial-driven process as early as the late 1800s, when it was associated with the production of “sweet” or “sour” silage. Classical microbiological plating techniques defined the epiphytic microbial populations associated with fresh forage, the pivotal role of lactic acid-producing bacteria in the ensiling process, and the contribution of clostridia, bacilli, yeast, and molds to the spoilage of silage. Many of these classical studies focused on the enumeration and characterization of a limited number of microbial species that could be readily isolated on selective media.

Silage review: Mycotoxins in silage: Occurrence, effects, prevention, and mitigation

Journal of Dairy Science -

Ensiled forage, particularly corn silage, is an important component of dairy cow diets worldwide. Forages can be contaminated with several mycotoxins in the field pre-harvest, during storage, or after ensiling during feed-out. Exposure to dietary mycotoxins adversely affects the performance and health of livestock and can compromise human health. Several studies and surveys indicate that ruminants are often exposed to mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone, and many other fungal secondary metabolites, via the silage they ingest.

Silage review: Interpretation of chemical, microbial, and organoleptic components of silages

Journal of Dairy Science -

The goal of making silage is to produce a stable feed with a high recovery of dry matter, energy, and highly digestible nutrients compared with the fresh crop. Microbial fermentation in the silo produces an array of end products and can change many nutritive aspects of a forage. High-quality silage should be void of undesirable compounds that could negatively affect animal performance, the environment, or net farm income. This review discusses the interpretation of the common fermentation end products, microbial populations, organoleptic properties, and changes in nutritive aspects of silages during storage of silages with emphasis on a North American perspective.

Silage review: Unique challenges of silages made in hot and cold regions

Journal of Dairy Science -

Silage making can be conveniently divided into field, ensiling, storage, and feed-out phases. In all of these stages, controllable and uncontrollable components can affect silage quality. For instance, silages produced in hot or cold regions are strongly influenced by uncontrollable climate-related factors. In hot regions, crops for silage are influenced by (1) high temperatures negatively affecting corn yield (whole-crop and grain) and nutritive value, (2) butyric and alcoholic fermentations in warm-season grasses (Panicum, Brachiaria, and Pennisetum genera) and sugarcane, respectively, and (3) accelerated aerobic deterioration of silages.

Silage review: Recent advances and future uses of silage additives

Journal of Dairy Science -

Additives have been available for enhancing silage preservation for decades. This review covers research studies published since 2000 that have investigated the efficacy of silage additives. The review has been divided into 6 categories of additives: homofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB), obligate heterofermentative LAB, combination inoculants containing obligate heterofermentative LAB plus homofermentative LAB, other inoculants, chemicals, and enzymes. The homofermentative LAB rapidly decrease pH and increase lactic acid relative to other fermentation products, although a meta-analysis indicated no reduction in pH in corn, sorghum, and sugarcane silages relative to untreated silages.

Silage review: Factors affecting dry matter and quality losses in silages

Journal of Dairy Science -

An overview was made of dry matter (DM) and quality losses that occur during the ensiling process from the field through the feeding phase. The aim was to review the relevant published literature of the last 15 yr focusing on developments achieved after the publication of the book Silage Science and Technology. This review discusses the factors affecting DM and quality losses in terms of field and pre-ensiling conditions, respiration and temperature at ensiling, fermentation patterns, methods of covering and weighting the silage cover, and management of aerobic deterioration.

Silage review: Recent advances and future technologies for whole-plant and fractionated corn silage harvesting

Journal of Dairy Science -

Over the last 25 years, whole-plant corn silage has become an important and popular feedstuff for dairy production. Copious research has been dedicated to the development and evaluation of alternatives to enhance the nutritive value of whole-plant corn silage. These efforts have been aimed at manipulating the physical and chemical characteristics of whole-plant corn silage in an effort to maximize dairy profitability. Results from this review indicate that optimization of harvest maturity, kernel processing, theoretical length of cut, and cutting height improve or maintain the nutritive value and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

Journal of Dairy Science Silage Special Issue: Introduction

Journal of Dairy Science -

Silage has been defined as the fermented and acidic stored feed from agricultural crops (Wilkinson et al., 2003). Silages are routinely fed on dairy and livestock farms worldwide because they minimize the loss of nutrients from harvest through storage and, when compared with dry forage, facilitate timely and efficient feed mixing and handling on-farm (Mahanna and Chase, 2003), and require less wilting. With ensiling, large amounts of forage can be conserved rapidly, and the harvesting and storing process is less dependent on the weather than haymaking.

Journal of Dairy Science® 2017 Editorial Report

Journal of Dairy Science -

We published the 100th volume of the Journal of Dairy Science in 2017 with a record number of pages (10,486; Figure 1). The time from submission to publication was 223 days for 2017 and this number has not changed appreciably since 2013. This is remarkable, given the fact that the total number of submitted papers has increased by 36% in the same period. Our focus is on our authors, reviewers, and readers, and the journal cannot be successful without each of these individual parts. The goal for 2018 is to continue our long history as the leading source of high-quality scientific publications in dairy science and to make continual improvements to our journal.

Un contrat tripartite pour du camembert

Réussir lait -

L'APLBC, la fromagerie Chavegrand (Creuse) et Lidl ont signé un contrat tripartite pour du camembert qui sera élaboré avec du lait issu de vaches nourries sans OGM. L'APLBC(1) est une OP représentant 480 adhérents qui livrent trois laiteries (LSDH, T. Rians et Chavegrand), et sont répartis sur 14 ...


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