Agrégateur de flux

Estimation of udder emptying based on milk constituents of strip samples after milking

Journal of Dairy Science -

Milk ejection disorders were induced by oxytocin receptor blockade. We tested the hypothesis that the degree of udder emptying at incomplete milk ejection can be estimated based on the concentration of various milk constituents in different milk fraction samples. To induce different levels of spontaneous udder emptying (SUE) 10 Holstein dairy cows were milked either with or without i.v. injection of the oxytocin receptor blocking agent atosiban (ATO). In ATOearly, 12 µg/kg BW ATO was injected immediately before and in ATOlate directly after a 1 min manual udder preparation.

Mapping the Meltdown Behavior of Frozen Dairy Desserts

Journal of Dairy Science -

The meltdown test is an efficient tool widely and commonly used to characterize structural changes in frozen desserts resulting from different ingredients and processing conditions. The meltdown is commonly determined by a gravimetric test, and it is used to obtain the onset (Mon), rate (Mrate), and maximum (MMax) meltdown. However, these parameters are calculated ambiguously due to the inconsistency in the methodology. This work aims at modeling the meltdown curves (weight vs time) of different commercial samples (36 commercial samples).

Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in bulk and individual goat milk around kidding: two longitudinal observational studies.

Journal of Dairy Science -

Total bacterial count (TBC) and somatic cell count (SCC) are important quality parameters in goat milk. Exceeding the bulk milk TBC (BMTBC) thresholds leads to price penalties for Dutch dairy goat farmers. Controlling these milk quality parameters can be challenging, especially around kidding. First, we describe the variation and the peaks around kidding of TBC and SCC in census data on Dutch bulk milk over the last 22 years. Second, to explore causes of these elevations, we studied the variation of TBC and SCC in individual goat milk from 3 weeks before to 5 weeks after kidding and their association with systemic response markers interferon-γ (IFN-γ), calprotectin, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), body condition score (BCS) and fecal consistency.

Rectal microbiomes and serum metabolomics reveal the improved effect of Artemisia ordosica crude polysaccharides on the lactation performance, antioxidant and immune responses of lactating donkeys

Journal of Dairy Science -

This study is aimed at investigating the effects of dietary supplementation with Artemisia ordosica crude polysaccharides (AOCP) on lactation performance, antioxidant status, and immune status of lactating donkeys and analyzing rectal microbiomes and serum metabolomes. Fourteen lactating Dezhou donkeys with similar age (6.16 ± 0.67 years of BW ± SD), weight (250.06 ± 25.18 kg), days in milk (39.11 ± 7.42 d), and averaged parity of 3 were randomly allocated into 2 treatments: a control group (CON, basal diet) and an AOCP group (AOCP, basal diet with 1.0 g/kg DM AOCP).

Genomic Analysis of Inbreeding and Coancestry in Nordic Jersey and Holstein Dairy Cattle Populations

Journal of Dairy Science -

In recent years, Genomic Selection (GS) has accelerated genetic gain in dairy cattle breeds worldwide. Despite the evident genetic progress, several dairy populations have also encountered challenges such as heightened inbreeding rates and reduced effective population sizes. The challenge has been to find a balance between achieving substantial genetic gain while managing genetic diversity within the population, thereby mitigating the negative effects of inbreeding depression. This study aims to elucidate the impact of GS on pedigree and genomic rates of inbreeding (ΔF) and coancestry (ΔC) in Nordic Jersey (NJ) and Holstein (NH) cattle populations.

Evaluation of bovine colostrum replacer supplementation to improve weaning transition in Holstein dairy calves

Journal of Dairy Science -

The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of supplementing bovine colostrum replacer during weaning to reduce intestinal permeability and improve gain. For this experiment, 65 calves were enrolled and housed individually until 70 d of age. Calves were fed milk replacer (150 g/L) 3 times daily with 9 L/d, 10.5 L/d, 11.25 L/d, and 12 L/d offered from d 1–7, d 8–14, d 15–21, d 22–56, respectively. Calves were weaned over 8 d from d 57–64, receiving a total of 7.8 L in 2 meals/d from d 57–60 and 3.8 L/d in one feeding from d 61–64.

Plasma and milk metabolomics profiles in dairy cows with subclinical and clinical ketosis

Journal of Dairy Science -

Ketosis, a commonly observed energy metabolism disorder in dairy cows during the peripartal period, is distinguished by increased concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in blood. This condition has a negative impact on milk production and quality, causing financial losses. An untargeted metabolomics approach was performed on plasma samples from cows between 5 and 7 DIM diagnosed as controls (CON, BHB <1.2 mM, n = 30), subclinically ketotic (SCK, 1.2 < BHB <3.0 mM, n = 30), or clinically ketotic (CK, BHB >3.0 mM, n = 30).

Preventive effects of lactoferrin on acute alcohol-induced liver injury via iron chelation and regulation of iron metabolism

Journal of Dairy Science -

Lactoferrin is widely found in milk and has the ability to bind iron. Previous studies have reported that lactoferrin was effective in the prevention and treatment of acute alcohol-induced liver injury (AALI). Ferroptosis is a recently discovered cell death and is involved in the development of AALI. However, the potential role of lactoferrin in acute alcohol-induced ferroptosis is still unclear. In this study, we observed that lactoferrin (10, 20 and 40 μg/mL) significantly mitigated alcohol (300 mM)-induced injury in vitro.

A Smartphone-Enabled Colorimetric Platform Based on Enzyme Cascade Amplification Strategy for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus in Milk

Journal of Dairy Science -

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a pathogenic bacterium-contaminating milk and dairy foods causing food poisoning and foodborne pathogens. In this work, a smartphone-enabled enzyme cascade-triggered colorimetric platform was constructed using cascade bio-nanozyme formed by immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) on the Fe3O4@Ag for rapid detection of S. aureus. Benefiting from reasonable experimental design, a bio-nanozyme cascade-triggered reaction was achieved through H2O2 produced by GOx oxidation of glucose, followed by in situ catalysis of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by the inherent peroxidase-like activity of Fe3O4@Ag to produce color signals.

Effects of supplementing direct-fed microbials on health and growth of pre-weaning Gyr × Holstein dairy calves

Journal of Dairy Science -

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of direct-fed microbials (DFM) on health and growth responses of pre-weaning Bos indicus × B. taurus (Gyr × Holstein) crossbred calves. Ninety newborn heifer calves [initial body weight (BW) 35 ± 4.0 kg] were used. At birth, calves were ranked by initial BW and parity of the dam and assigned to: 1) whole milk without DFM supplementation (CON; n = 30), 2) whole milk with the addition of 1.0 g/calf per day of a Bacillus-based DFM (BAC; n = 30), or 3) whole milk with the addition of 1.0 g/calf per day of BAC and 1.2 g/calf per day of Enterococcus faecium 669 (MIX; n = 30).

Long-term growth, feed efficiency, enteric methane emission, and blood metabolite responses to in utero hyperthermia in Holstein heifers

Journal of Dairy Science -

Dairy producers are experiencing production and animal welfare pressures from the increasing frequency and severity of heat stress events due to global climate change. Offspring performance during the pre-weaning and lactating periods is compromised when exposed to heat stress during late gestation (in utero). However, knowledge of the lingering impacts of in utero heat stress on yearling dairy heifers is limited. Herein, we investigated the long-term effects of in utero heat stress on heifer growth, feed efficiency, and enteric methane emissions in post-pubertal heifers.

Comparative analysis of thermal indices for modeling cold and heat stress in US dairy systems

Journal of Dairy Science -

Quantifying the impact of thermal stress on milk yields is essential to effectively manage present and future risks in dairy systems. Despite the existence of numerous heat indices designed to communicate stress thresholds, little information is available regarding the accuracy of different indices in estimating milk yield losses from both cold and heat stress at large spatio-temporal scales. To address this gap, we comparatively analyzed the performance of existing thermal indices in capturing US milk yield response to both cold and heat stress at the national scale.

Energy requirement for primiparous Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

Our objective was to estimate the requirements of metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy for the maintenance (NEm) of lactating and dry cows, the efficiency of ME utilization for milk production (kl) and tissue gain (kg), and the use of body energy mobilization for milk production (kt) throughout the lactation of primiparous crossbred Holstein × Gyr cows, using open-circuit respiration chambers. Twenty-nine primiparous Holstein × Gyr crossbred cows with an initial BW averaging 563 ± 40.1 kg and 2.5 ± 0.09 years old were used throughout lactation and dry periods.

Characterization of microplastics in skim-milk powders

Journal of Dairy Science -

The diffusion of microplastics in the food supply chain is prompting public concern as their impact on human health is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize microplastics in skim-milk powder samples (n = 16) from different European countries (n = 8) through Fourier-transform infrared micro-spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance mode analysis. The present study highlights that the use of hot alkaline digestion has enabled the efficacious identification of microplastics in skim-milk powders used for cheese-making across European countries.

Consumer perception of Cheddar cheese color

Journal of Dairy Science -

The color of Cheddar cheese in the US is influenced by many factors, primarily the amount of annatto added as a colorant. The US FDA is currently reviewing its definition of the term “natural” on food labels, which may result in the use of colorants being restricted in natural cheeses. The objective of this study was to evaluate how consumers perceive Cheddar cheese color to better understand how changes to legislation surrounding colorants in natural Cheddar cheese may affect consumption. We were also interested in determining if a relationship exists between color and other perceived characteristics of Cheddar cheese.

Producer perceptions of dairy calf management, behavior, and welfare

Journal of Dairy Science -

Approaches for raising calves vary across commercial dairy farms and relate to behavioral opportunities and animal welfare. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how US dairy producers and calf managers perceive 1) welfare implications of varying management practices (including social housing and milk allowance) and behaviors in dairy calves, and 2) aspects of the human-animal relationship in calf rearing and relationships with on-farm management and personal calf handling habits. Survey questions were primarily quantitative (e.g., Likert scales) and addressed how common calf management practices and observed calf behaviors were related to aspects of welfare, including calf health and comfort.

The acute effects of rumen pulse-dosing of hydrogen acceptors during methane inhibition with nitrate or 3-nitrooxypropanol in dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

Dietary methane (CH4) mitigation is in some cases associated with an increased hydrogen (H2) emission. The objective of the present study was to investigate the acute and short-term effects of acceptors for H2 (fumaric acid, acrylic acid or phloroglucinol) supplemented via pulse-dosing to dairy cows fed CH4 mitigating diets (using nitrate or 3-nitrooxypropanol), on gas exchange, rumen gas and VFA composition. For this purpose, 2 individual 4 × 4 Latin square experiments were conducted with 4 periods of 3 d (nitrate supplementation) and 7 d (3-nitrooxypropanol supplementation), respectively.

Effect of acid detergent lignin concentration for diets formulated to be similar in NDF content on energy utilization in lactating Jersey cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

Lignin is a polyphenolic polymer that is an important factor in limiting fiber digestibility by ruminants. The objective of the current study was to evaluate lignin's impacts on whole animal energy utilization in diets similar in NDF content. A low lignin (LoLig) diet was formulated to contain 32.5% NDF (DM basis) and 9.59% lignin (NDF basis) and the high lignin (HiLig) diet was formulated to contain 31.0% NDF (DM basis) and 13.3% lignin (NDF basis). These diets were randomly assigned and fed to 12 late-lactation (214 ± 14.9 DIM) multiparous Jersey cows (435 ± 13.9 kg) in a 2-period crossover design.

A large population study to assess the magnitude of prenatal programming in dairy cattle

Journal of Dairy Science -

The performance of an adult dairy cow may be influenced by events that occur before her birth. The present study investigated potential effects of 2 prenatal groups of factors, Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) and maternal characteristics (e.g., dam parity), on offspring performance during their first lactation, in populations of 2 dairy cow breeds: French Holstein and Montbéliarde. The different ART studied included the type of semen (conventional or X-sorted) used for Artificial Insemination (AI) and the technology of conception used (AI, embryo transfer, or in vitro fertilization).

Localized mammary gland changes in milk composition and venous blood metabolite concentrations result from sterile subclinical mastitis

Journal of Dairy Science -

Subclinical mastitis reduces milk yield and elicits undesirable changes in milk composition, but the mechanisms resulting in reduced milk production in affected mammary glands are incompletely understood. This study investigated the effects of sterile inflammation on mammary gland metabolism by assessing changes in milk and venous blood composition. Mid-lactation primiparous Holstein cows (n = 4) had udder halves randomly allocated to treatments; quarters of 1 udder half were infused with 2 billion cfu of formalin fixed Staphylococcus aureus (FX-STAPH) and quarters of the opposite udder half infused with saline (SAL).

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