Agrégateur de flux

INTERPRETIVE SUMMARIES, FEBRUARY 2022

Journal of Dairy Science -

Invited review: Unknown-parent groups and metafounders in single-step genomic BLUP. By Masuda et al., page 923. Pedigrees are often incomplete in dairy cattle. Missing pedigrees are a source of bias and inaccuracy in genomic predictions when combining phenotypes, pedigrees, and genotypes. Pseudo individuals, so-called unknown-parent groups, are assigned to missing parents to remove bias. However, it is unclear how unknown-parent groups should work in genomic models. We discuss possible statistical models for unknown-parent groups, their effect on genomic predictions, and the relevance of an alternative metafounder model.

Corrigendum to “Radioprotective effect of radiation-induced Lactococcus lactis cell-free extract against 60Coγ injury in mice” (J. Dairy Sci. 104:9532–9542)

Journal of Dairy Science -

The RBC counts were incorrect in three places on page 9536 (corrections in bold); the correct counts are 9.39 ± 0.27 × 1012/L, 10.34 ± 0.64 × 1012/L, and 10.64 ± 0.43 × 1012/L (not 1,012/L). In Figure 6 (page 9539), the y-axis of panel B should read “ALT (IU/L),” not ATL (IU/L).

In Memoriam: Peter J. Van Soest (1929–2021)

Journal of Dairy Science -

Peter J. Van Soest, one of the most influential animal scientists and professors of his generation, died March 21, 2021. Van Soest (pronounced “Van Soost”) was born June 30, 1929, and grew up on a dairy farm in Snohomish, Washington. He graduated from the Department of Dairy Science of Washington State University with a BS in 1951, and a MS in 1952. He said that his minor in physical chemistry gave him a new way of looking at the world. He obtained his PhD in the Department of Dairy Husbandry at the University of Wisconsin in 1955 and was drafted into the Army where he served as a biochemist at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, working on analysis of minerals in blood.

Repeatability of anogenital distance measurements from birth to maturity and at different physiological states in female Holstein cattle

Journal of Dairy Science -

The inverse association between anogenital distance (AGD; the distance from the center of the anus to the base of the clitoris) and fertility, its moderate heritability, and high variability reported in dairy cattle make AGD a promising candidate for further exploration as a reproductive phenotype. In addition to heritability, repeatability (i.e., consistency in measurements taken at different time points) is important for a reproductive phenotype to be considered useful in genetic selection. Therefore, our primary objective was to determine the repeatability of AGD from birth to breeding age (≈16 mo) in Holstein heifer calves, and during different stages of the estrous cycle, gestation, and lactation in Holstein cows.

An approach to improve the baking properties and determine the onset of browning in fat-free mozzarella cheese

Journal of Dairy Science -

Compared with low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and mozzarella cheese, bake performance of low-fat and fat-free mozzarella on pizza has a lot to desire. We hypothesized that a water-soaking pretreatment step of low-fat and fat-free cheese shreds before baking would improve pizza baking performance. The study also examined the correlation of the onset of cheese browning with the rate of moisture loss, changes in cheese surface temperature, and 3-dimensional (3D) plot L* a* b* CIELAB color analysis.

Genomic prediction in Nordic Red dairy cattle considering breed origin of alleles

Journal of Dairy Science -

This study investigated the reliability of genomic prediction (GP) using breed origin of alleles (BOA) approach in the Nordic Red (RDC) population, which has an admixed population structure. The RDC population consists of animals with varying degrees of genetic materials from the Danish Red (RDM), Swedish Red (SRB), Finnish Ayrshire (FAY), and Holstein (HOL) because bulls have been used across the breeds. The BOA approach was tested using 39,550 RDC animals in the reference population and 11,786 in the validation population.

Effect of fish oil and canola oil supplementation on immunological parameters, feed intake, and growth of Holstein calves

Journal of Dairy Science -

Supplemental n-3 fatty acids (FA) may support better immune responses than n-6 and n-9 FA in dairy calves. The objective was to evaluate the effect of n-3 FA, supplemented as a fish oil product (FO) in the milk replacer (MR), in comparison to n-6 and n-9 FA, supplemented as canola oil (CO), on body weight (BW), daily gain, and immunological parameters of preweaning Holstein calves. The study was conducted from September to December 2019. Calves were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 15; BW = 36.2 ± 1.5 kg; mean ± SEM) supplemented daily with 30 mL of CO and to an experimental group (n = 15; BW = 36.3 ± 1.5 kg) supplemented with 60 g of a product containing 30 g of FO.

Transferring a large data library of fresh total mixed rations from a benchtop to 2 portable near-infrared spectrometers for on-farm real-time decisions

Journal of Dairy Science -

This study was carried out using a spectral database consisting of 394 samples of fresh total mixed ration (TMR) from dairy farms located at Northern Spain. Cloning sets of different size and structure were evaluated for the transfer of the large TMR spectral database obtained on a Foss NIRSystems monochromator to 2 different portable near-infrared devices: one diode array instrument and another based on linear variable filters. The cloning matrix that produced the best matching between instruments was then used to transfer the TMR spectral library to the 2 portable instruments.

Comparison of growth and survival of single strains of Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus cremoris during Cheddar cheese manufacture

Journal of Dairy Science -

Traditionally, starter cultures for Cheddar cheese are combinations of Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus cremoris. Our goal was to compare growth and survival of individual strains during cheesemaking, and after salting and pressing. Cultures used were 2 strains of L. lactis (SSM 7605, SSM 7436) and 2 strains of L. cremoris (SSM 7136, SSM 7661). A standardized Cheddar cheese make procedure was used that included a 38°C cook temperature and salting levels of 2.0, 2.4, 2.8, 3.2, and 3.6% from which were selected cheeses with salt-in-moisture levels of 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5%.

Fatty acid profile characterization in colostrum, transition milk, and mature milk of primi- and multiparous cows during the first week of lactation

Journal of Dairy Science -

The specific fatty acid (FA) profile of colostrum may indicate a biological requirement for neonatal calves. The objective of this study was to characterize the FA profile and yields in colostrum, transition milk, and mature milk in primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) cows. Colostrum was milked from 10 PP and 10 MP Holstein cows fed the same pre- and postpartum rations. Milkings (M) 2 to 5 and 12 were respectively termed transition and mature milk. Overall, short-chain FA (C4:0 and C6:0) were 61 and 50% lower in colostrum than mature milk, respectively.

Effects of Lactobacillus fermentum HY01 on the quality characteristics and storage stability of yak yogurt

Journal of Dairy Science -

Lactobacillus fermentum HY01 is a probiotic strain screened from traditional yak yogurt, which can effectively relieve enteritis and constipation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of HY01 as an adjunct starter on the quality and storage of yak yogurt. A total of 36 main volatile flavor substances were detected in all samples. In particular, more aldehydes, esters, and alcohols were detected in yak yogurt prepared by mixed fermentation of L. fermentum HY01 and starter MY105 (including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp.

Removing data and using metafounders alleviates biases for all traits in Lacaune dairy sheep predictions

Journal of Dairy Science -

Bias in dairy genetic evaluations, when it exists, has to be understood and properly addressed. The origin of biases is not always clear. We analyzed 40 yr of records from the Lacaune dairy sheep breeding program to evaluate the extent of bias, assess possible corrections, and emit hypotheses on its origin. The data set included 7 traits (milk yield, fat and protein contents, somatic cell score, teat angle, udder cleft, and udder depth) with records from 600,000 to 5 million depending on the trait, ∼1,900,000 animals, and ∼5,900 genotyped elite artificial insemination rams.

Effect of circadian system disruption on the concentration and daily oscillations of cortisol, progesterone, melatonin, serotonin, growth hormone, and core body temperature in periparturient dairy cattle

Journal of Dairy Science -

Metabolic, circadian, sleep, and reproductive systems are integrated and reciprocally regulated, but the understanding of the mechanism is limited. To study this integrated regulation, the circadian timing system was disrupted by exposing late pregnant nonlactating (dry) cows to chronic shifts in the light-dark phase, and rhythms of body temperature and circulating cortisol (CORT), progesterone (P4), serotonin (5HT), melatonin (MEL), and growth hormone (GH) concentrations were measured. Specifically, across 2 identical studies (1 and 2), at 35 d before expected calving (BEC) multiparous cows were assigned to control (CON; n = 24) and exposed to 16 h light and 8 h dark or phase shift (PS; n = 24) treatments and exposed to 6-h light-dark phase shifts every 3 d until parturition.

Effects of a single transdermal administration of flunixin meglumine in early postpartum Holstein Friesian dairy cows: Part 1. Inflammatory and metabolic markers, uterine health, and indicators of pain

Journal of Dairy Science -

The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of a single transdermal administration of flunixin meglumine (FM) in early postpartum Holstein Friesian dairy cows on serum concentrations of inflammatory and metabolic markers, uterine health, and indicators of pain. The hypothesis was that the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgetic effects of the pharmaceutic agent would reduce systemic inflammation, resulting in improved metabolic and inflammatory profile, diminished incidence of metritis, and reduced expression of pain.

Synthesis and physicochemical characterization of zinc-lactoferrin complexes

Journal of Dairy Science -

One trend of the modern world is the search for new biologically active substances based on renewable resources. Milk proteins can be a solution for such purposes as they have been known for a long time as compounds that can be used for the manufacturing of multiple food and non-food products. Thus, the goal of the work was to investigate the parameters of Zn-bovine lactoferrin (bLTF) interactions, which enables the synthesis of Zn-rich protein complexes. Zinc-bLTF complexes can be used as food additives or wound-healing agents.

Photoprotective effects of sphingomyelin-containing milk phospholipids in ultraviolet B–irradiated hairless mice by suppressing NF-κB expression

Journal of Dairy Science -

Ceramide-containing phospholipids improve skin hydration and barrier function and are ideal for use in skin care products. In this study, we evaluated the photoprotective effect of milk phospholipids on the skin condition of UVB-irradiated hairless mice. Skin parameters were assessed following oral administration of milk phospholipids. The UVB irradiation induced photoaging in mice. The animals were divided into 5 groups: a control group (oral administration of saline with no UBV irradiation), UVB group (oral administration of saline with UVB irradiation), and 3 UVB irradiation groups receiving the milk phospholipids at 3 different concentrations of oral administration, 50 mg/kg (ML group), 100 mg/kg (MM group), and 150 mg/kg (MH group), for 8 wk.

Phosphorylation and glycosylation isoforms of bovine κ-casein variant E in homozygous Swedish Red cow milk by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

Journal of Dairy Science -

Variations in the phosphorylation and glycosylation patterns of the common κ-casein (CN) variants A and B have been explored, whereas studies on variant E heterogeneity are scarce. This study reports for the first time the detailed phosphorylation and glycosylation pattern of the κ-CN variant E in comparison with variants A and B. Individual cow milk samples representing κ-CN genotype EE (n = 12) were obtained from Swedish Red cows, and the natural posttranslational modifications of its κ-CN were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry.

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