Agrégateur de flux

Interpretive Summaries, November 2020

Journal of Dairy Science -

MILK Symposium review: The importance of milk and dairy foods in the diets of infants, adolescents, pregnant women, adults, and the elderly. By Givens, page 9681. There is now increasing evidence that diets in early life can influence health throughout later life. Milk and dairy foods are important sources of certain nutrients and have functional effects that are particularly important at certain life stages. This paper examines some of the key nutrition issues during childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, and middle and older age and discusses where dairy foods can be helpful.

Corrigendum to “A synbiotic combination of Lactobacillus gasseri 505 and Cudrania tricuspidata leaf extract prevents hepatic toxicity induced by colorectal cancer in mice” (J. Dairy Sci. 103:2947–2955)

Journal of Dairy Science -

The affiliation for author Sae Hun Kim was shown incorrectly on the title page (page 2947). Dr. Kim is affiliated with the Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, Korea (affiliation 3).

Contributions of dairy products to environmental impacts and nutritional supplies from United States agriculture

Journal of Dairy Science -

Questions regarding the balance between the contribution to human nutrition and the environmental impact of livestock food products rarely evaluate specific species or how to accomplish the recommended depopulation. The objective of this study was to assess current contributions of the US dairy industry to the supply of nutrients and environmental impact, characterize potential impacts of alternative land use for land previously used for crops for dairy cattle, and evaluate the impacts of these approaches on US dairy herd depopulation.

MILK Symposium review: The importance of milk and dairy foods in the diets of infants, adolescents, pregnant women, adults, and the elderly*

Journal of Dairy Science -

The ongoing increase in life expectancy is not always accompanied by an increase in healthy life span. There is increasing evidence that dietary exposure in early life can substantially affect chronic disease risk in later life. Milk and dairy foods are important suppliers of a range of key nutrients, with some being particularly important at certain life stages. It is now recognized that milk protein can stimulate insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), essential for longitudinal bone growth and bone mass acquisition in young children, thus reducing the risk of stunting.

MILK Symposium review: Sustainability of dairy production and consumption in low-income countries with emphasis on productivity and environmental impact*

Journal of Dairy Science -

Sustainable milk production and consumption in low-income countries must address food security and climate change mitigation simultaneously. Socioeconomic sustainability is paramount in low-income countries, where milk production and consumption represent a vehicle to improve human nutrition and health, as well as the potential for economic opportunity and improved livelihood of subsistence farmers. These benefits can only be achieved with judicious use of animal stocks and agricultural practices that do not exhaust available natural resources, which are often shared by regional farming communities.

MILK Symposium review: Identifying constraints, opportunities, and best practices for improving milk production in market-oriented dairy farms in Sri Lanka*...

Journal of Dairy Science -

Dairy is the most important subsector in the Sri Lankan livestock industry, due to the need to address the growing demand for fresh milk and milk products, and because of its potential influence on the rural economy. The USDA Food for Progress program awarded a 4.5-year Market-Oriented Dairy project to International Executive Service Corps, a not-for-profit organization based in Washington, DC. The objective of the Market-Oriented Dairy project is to support Sri Lanka's dairy sector and catalyze sustainable growth by strengthening the dairy sector through better technological, financial, and management practices benefiting all stakeholders and consumers along the dairy value chain.

MILK Symposium review: Improving the productivity, quality, and safety of milk in Rwanda and Nepal*

Journal of Dairy Science -

Dairy production plays an important role in the lives of many people in Rwanda and Nepal. The aim of the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Livestock Systems (LSIL; Gainesville, FL) is to introduce new location-appropriate technologies and to improve management practices, skills, knowledge, capacity, and access to inputs across livestock value chains in developing countries such as Rwanda and Nepal. To assist LSIL, our first aim was to describe gaps in the management of cows and in milk processing that constrain milk quality and quantity in Rwanda and Nepal.

MILK Symposium review: Community-tailored training to improve the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women regarding hygienic milk production and handling in Borana pastoral area of southern Ethiopia*

Journal of Dairy Science -

Milk and milk products are essential in the diets of the Borana pastoral community in Ethiopia. Traditional handling and processing of dairy products using basic equipment and infrastructure coupled with a preference for raw milk consumption pose potential health risks to consumers. We tested the effect of an intervention designed to improve the hygienic handling and safe consumption of milk on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of women who produce and sell dairy products. The intervention consisted of 16 h of training on good milk production practices and prevention of milk-borne diseases.

MILK Symposium review: Improving control of mastitis in dairy animals in Nepal*

Journal of Dairy Science -

Dairy animals are an important source of income, food, and nutritional security, and improvements in the productivity of dairy animals substantially improve the wellbeing of smallholder dairy farmers. As in other developing countries, dairy animals are key for rural livelihoods in Nepal but often suffer from mastitis—a production disease causing economic losses to farmers, challenges to the dairy processing industry, and possible health hazards to consumers. Studies show that the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Africa and Asia typically exceeds 50%, threatening animal wellbeing, farmers, dairy processors, and consumers.

MILK Symposium review: Microbiological quality and safety of milk from farm to milk collection centers in Rwanda*

Journal of Dairy Science -

The aim of this study was to generate knowledge on the most important milk quality and safety attributes, including somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Brucella spp. antibodies and antibiotic residues in milk in the chain from farm to milk collection center (MCC) in Rwanda. In addition, we investigated farm and management factors associated with high TBC, SCC, and Salmonella counts. Raw milk was sampled at the farm and MCC levels. Milk samples were taken from dairy farms linked to 2 selected MCC in each of the 4 provinces in Rwanda.

MILK Symposium review: Foodborne diseases from milk and milk products in developing countries—Review of causes and health and economic implications*

Journal of Dairy Science -

Dairy production is rapidly increasing in developing countries and making significant contributions to health, nutrition, environments, and livelihoods, with the potential for still greater contributions. However, dairy products can also contribute to human disease in many ways, with dairyborne disease likely being the most important. Health risks may be from biological, chemical, physical, or allergenic hazards present in milk and other dairy products. Lacking rigorous evidence on the full burden of foodborne and dairyborne disease in developing countries, we compiled information from different sources to improve our estimates.

MILK Symposium review: Milk consumption is associated with better height and weight in rural Nepali children over 60 months of age and better head circumference in children 24 to 60 months of age*

Journal of Dairy Science -

Child undernutrition afflicts >150 million children worldwide, contributing to poor child growth, increased risk of infections, and loss of developmental potential. Animal-source foods (ASF) can ameliorate these problems by providing high-quality, high-density, and bioavailable protein and micronutrients. However, many children in developing countries lack ASF in their diet, although generally milk is the ASF most often consumed. Nevertheless, the relation of ASF—and that of specific ASF—to child growth in these contexts has been difficult to define, as has the association between diet and child and household factors in influencing growth outcomes.

MILK Symposium Introduction: Dairy production in developing countries*

Journal of Dairy Science -

In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), dairy production is highly valued, and demand for milk is projected to continue to increase markedly over the next few decades. This presents a tremendous opportunity to improve the nutrition, health, incomes, and livelihoods of millions of people with the high-quality protein and bioavailable micronutrients in dairy products. However, low dairy consumption levels, due to low affordability, accessibility, and availability, still typify several LMICs. This is caused by inadequate feeding, management, and genetics; poor transport, cooling, and processing infrastructure; unconducive policy environments; and sociocultural and demographic factors.

Communication preferences and social media engagement among Canadian dairy producers

Journal of Dairy Science -

The objective of this study was to determine communication preferences of dairy producers in Canada. A secondary objective was to evaluate social media engagement of dairy producers. A survey was administered to Canadian dairy producers between March and April, 2015 to collect information on current management practices on their farms. A total of 1,373 Canadian dairy producers responded to the survey, representing a response rate of 12%. The survey consisted of 192 questions; however, only questions regarding producer demographics, importance of information sources, and internet and social media use were evaluated in this study.

Technical note: Repeatability and reproducibility of curd yield and composition in a miniaturized coagulation model

Journal of Dairy Science -

Miniaturized coagulation (MC) models have been proposed for the evaluation of curd yield (CY) in individual milk samples of different dairy species and breeds, and for the analysis of cheese microstructure and texture. It is still unclear if MC using less than 50 mL of milk is suitable to evaluate CY and chemical composition, and if preservative added to raw milk may interfere with MC process. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating repeatability and reproducibility of CY, curd moisture, and fat and protein content on curd dry matter (DM) from MC trials using 40 g of milk.

Invited review: Academic and applied approach to evaluating longevity in dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

In its simplest form, longevity is defined as the ability to live a long life. Within the dairy industry, longevity has been defined and measured in many different ways, and the aim of this review is to disentangle the definitions and provide some clarity. Using a more standardized approach for defining and measuring longevity, both in academic discussions and on-farm application, we suggest using herd life (days) for time from birth until culling, and length of productive life (days) for time from first calving until culling.

Changes in the viscosity, textural properties, and water status in yogurt gel upon supplementation with green and Pu-erh tea

Journal of Dairy Science -

The present research was established to study the effect of green tea and Pu-erh tea (PT) additives on the mechanical and hydration properties of yogurt gels using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance, rheological, and textural studies. Tea infusions (0–15 mL/100 mL) were added to batch milk before fermentation with yogurt culture. Obtained dairy products were analyzed for the water mobility and organization, viscosity, and texture profile. Results of the rheological and nuclear magnetic resonance studies suggested that stabilization of the yogurt gel structure was achieved upon supplementation with tea infusions.

Genetic parameters for fertility traits assessed in herds divergent in milk energy output in Holstein-Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Simmental cattle

Journal of Dairy Science -

In this study, we aimed to investigate differences in the genetics of fertility traits (heritability of traits and correlations between traits in divergent environments) in dairy cows of different production levels defined on the basis of the herd-average daily milk energy output (herd-dMEO). Data were obtained from Holstein-Friesian (n = 37,359 for fertility traits, 381,334 for dMEO), Brown Swiss (n = 79,638 for fertility traits, 665,697 for dMEO), and Simmental cows (n = 63,048 for fertility traits, 448,445 for dMEO) reared in northeastern Italy.

Insulin potentiates essential amino acids effects on mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling in MAC-T cells

Journal of Dairy Science -

Different models of lactation offer conflicting evidence as to whether insulin signaling is required for AA to stimulate mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity. We hypothesized that insulin potentiates essential AA stimulation of mTORC1 activity in the MAC-T mammary epithelial cell line. Here, our objective was to assess mTORC1 signaling activity in response to insulin and individual or grouped essential AA. Insulin and essential AA concentrations in the treatment medium ranged from normo- to supraphysiological, with insulin at 0, 1, 10, or 100 nmol/L and essential AA at approximately 0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, or 3× reference plasma levels.

Effects of propionate concentration on short-term metabolism in liver explants from dairy cows in the postpartum period

Journal of Dairy Science -

Our objective was to determine the temporal effects of increasing supply of propionate on propionate metabolism in liver tissue of dairy cows in the postpartum (PP) period. A total of 6 dairy cows [primiparous: n = 3, 9.00 ± 1.00 d PP (mean ± SD) and multiparous: n = 3; 4.67 ± 1.15 d PP] were biopsied for liver explants in a block-design experiment. Explants were treated with 3 concentrations of [13C3]sodium propionate of 1, 2, or 4 mM. Explants were incubated in 2 mL of Medium 199 supplemented with 1% BSA, 0.6 mM oleic acid, 2 mM sodium l-lactate, 0.2 mM sodium pyruvate, and 0.5 mM l-glutamine at 38°C and sampled at 0.5, 15, and 60 min.

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