Agrégateur de flux

Interpretive Summaries, March 2019

Journal of Dairy Science -

Invited review: Advancement of lateral flow immunoassay for screening hazardous substances in milk and milk powder. By Chen et al., page 1887. This review describes the use of some traditional lateral flow immunoassays in detecting hazardous substances in milk and milk powder and discusses recent advances in lateral flow immunoassays with improved sensitivity and detection efficiency. These advances include adopting novel label materials, developing signal amplification systems, designing multiplex detection, and establishing nucleic acid-based lateral flow immunoassays.

Corrigendum to “Saturated fat supplementation interacts with dietary forage NDF content during the immediate postpartum period in Holstein cows: Energy balance and metabolism” (J. Dairy Sci. 98:3323–3334)

Journal of Dairy Science -

On page 3323, the sixth sentence of the abstract should be modified to “Low fNDF diets increased plasma insulin (0.308 vs. 0.137 µg/L) and glucose concentrations (50.5 vs. 45.7 mg/dL) and decreased plasma nonesterified FA (606 vs. 917 µEq/L) and β-hydroxybutyrate (9.29 vs. 16.5 mg/dL) concentrations and liver triglyceride content.”

Associations of postpartum lying time with culling, milk yield, cyclicity, and reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

The objectives were to evaluate the associations of lying time (LT) during the first 14 d in milk (DIM) with milk yield, cyclicity (CYC), culling within 60 DIM (CULL), and reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows. A total of 1,052 Holstein cattle (401 nulliparous heifers and 651 parous cows) from 3 commercial dairy farms had electronic data loggers (IceQube, IceRobotics, Edinburgh, UK) placed on a hind leg 14 ± 3 d before the expected parturition date and removed at 14 ± 3 DIM to assess their LT.

Influence of particle size and density on mean retention time in the rumen of dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

Increasing rumen-undegraded protein is one challenge of ruminant nutrition to both meet protein requirements of animals and reduce nitrogen excretion in the environment by increasing nitrogen efficiency. Industrial processes using heat or tanning to reduce rumen protein degradation have certain limitations, such as difficulty in balancing low ruminal degradation and high intestinal digestibility. Reducing the mean retention time (MRT) in the rumen by varying the size and density of particles may be another promising way to increase the rumen-undegraded protein proportion of concentrate feeds and improve the effectiveness of industrial processes.

Effect of pegbovigrastim administration on the microbiome found in the vagina of cows postpartum

Journal of Dairy Science -

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pegbovigrastim (PEG) treatment of peripartum Holstein cows on the microbiome found in the vagina postpartum using sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A subset of cows was randomly sampled from a larger study where cows had been randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: pegbovigrastim (PEG) or untreated control (CTR). The PEG-treated cows received a subcutaneous injection containing 15 mg of pegbovigrastim 7 d before expected calving and a second injection within 24 h of calving.

Simultaneous quantitative detection of viable Escherichia coli O157:H7, Cronobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. using sodium deoxycholate-propidium monoazide with multiplex real-time PCR

Journal of Dairy Science -

Escherichia coli O157:H7, Cronobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. are common food-borne pathogens in milk that may cause serious diseases. In the present study, we established a simple, rapid, and specific method to simultaneously detect viable E. coli O157:H7, Cronobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. in milk. Three specific genes, fliC from E. coli O157:H7, cgcA from Cronobacter spp., and invA from Salmonella spp., were selected and used to design primers and probes. False-positive results were eliminated with the use of a combined sodium deoxycholate (SD) and propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment.

Invited review: Metabolic challenges and adaptation during different functional stages of the mammary gland in dairy cows: Perspectives for sustainable milk production

Journal of Dairy Science -

Milk production of dairy cows increased markedly during recent decades and continues to increase further. The evolutionarily conserved direction of nutrients to the mammary gland immediately after calving provided the basis for successful selective breeding toward higher performance. Considerable variation in adaptive responses toward energy and nutrient shortages exists; however, this variation in adaptability recently gained interest for identifying more metabolically robust dairy cows. Metabolic challenges during periods of high milk production considerably affect the immune system, reproductive performance, and product quality as well as animal welfare.

Effects of once- versus twice-a-day feeding of pasteurized milk supplemented with yeast-derived feed additives on growth and health in female dairy calves

Journal of Dairy Science -

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of feeding preweaning dairy calves pasteurized milk once or twice a day with or without a combination of yeast-derived products. Holstein heifer calves (n = 48) from The Pennsylvania State University dairy herd were fed 3.8 L of colostrum in 1 feeding and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (once-a-day milk feeding with or without live yeast culture and mannan-rich fraction and twice-a-day milk feeding with or without live yeast culture and mannan-rich fraction).

Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence-based characterization of fungal isolates from multiple yogurt facilities—A case study

Journal of Dairy Science -

Fungal spoilage remains a significant issue in dairy product quality, especially for cultured dairy products such as yogurt formulated without preservatives such as potassium sorbate. Fungal contamination can occur throughout the processing continuum, from the dairy farm environment to the finished product processing environment. As molecular characterization of fungal isolates is used more frequently, we obtained fungal isolates obtained in 2 yogurt processing facilities as part of routine fungal testing of raw materials (e.g., fruit preparations, added ingredients), in-process product samples, environmental samples (e.g., air plates, equipment surfaces such as valves, face plates, air nozzles), and finished product samples, to determine whether internal transcribed spacer (ITS) barcoding data would be helpful to support source tracking of fungal contamination issues.

Technical note: Methods for interim prediction of single-step breeding values for young animals

Journal of Dairy Science -

Single-step genomic evaluations have the advantage of simultaneously combining all pedigree, phenotypic, and genotypic information available. However, systems with a large number of genotyped animals have some computational challenges. In many genomic breeding programs, genomic predictions of young animals should become available for selection decisions in the shortest time possible, which requires either a very effective estimation or an approximation with negligible loss in accuracy. We investigated different procedures for predicting breeding values of young genotyped animals without setting up the full single-step system augmented for the additional genotypes.

Characteristics of ripened Tronchón cheese from raw goat milk containing legally admissible amounts of antibiotics

Journal of Dairy Science -

The aim of this study was to evaluate the transfer of the most widely used antibiotics in dairy goats from milk to cheese as well as their effect on the cheese-making process and cheese characteristics during ripening. Antibiotic-free milk was spiked individually with 7 veterinary drugs (amoxicillin, benzylpenicillin, cloxacillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and oxytetracycline) at an equivalent concentration of the European Union maximum residue limit. Spiked goat milk was used to make mature Tronchón cheeses, which were analyzed at 0, 30, and 60 d of maturation to determine pH, chemical composition, proteolytic and lipolytic activities, and color and textural properties.

Comparison of oil and fat supplementation on lactation performance of Nili Ravi buffaloes

Journal of Dairy Science -

The effects of feeding rumen-inert fat sources on production responses of lactating dairy cows have been well reported but less thoroughly described in lactating dairy buffalo. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oil and 2 different rumen-inert fat sources on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Nili Ravi buffalo. Twelve multiparous mid-lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes received 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a period length of 21 d.

Effects of a commercial fermentation byproduct or urea on milk production, rumen metabolism, and omasal flow of nutrients in lactating dairy cattle

Journal of Dairy Science -

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a fermentation byproduct on rumen fermentation and microbial yield in high producing lactating dairy cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 60 ± 10 d in milk and 637 ± 38 kg of body weight were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment sequences in a switchback design. Treatment diets contained (dry matter basis) 44% corn silage, 13% alfalfa silage, 12% ground corn, and 31% premix containing either a control mix of urea and wheat middlings (CON) or a commercial fermentation byproduct meal (Fermenten, Arm and Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ) at 3% diet inclusion rate (EXP).

Genome-wide association study of normal and atypical progesterone profiles in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

Female fertility has a major role in dairy production and affects the profitability of dairy cattle. The genetic progress obtained by traditional selection can be slow because of the low heritability of classical fertility traits. Endocrine fertility traits based on progesterone concentration in milk have higher heritability and more directly reflect the cow's own reproductive physiology. The aim of our study was to identify genomic regions for 7 endocrine fertility traits in dairy cows by performing a genome-wide association study with 54,000 SNP.

Antimicrobial spectrum activity of bacteriocinogenic Staphylococcus strains isolated from goat and sheep milk

Journal of Dairy Science -

Bacteriocins have attracted great attention as potential alternatives to antibiotics and chemical food additives. In the present study, 243 Staphylococcus isolates from milk samples (n = 110) of goat and sheep herds located in Fars province, Iran, were screened for antimicrobial substance production. Twenty-eight isolates showed an antagonistic activity against the indicator strain Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698. The susceptibility of all antimicrobial substances to proteolytic enzymes allowed us to consider them as bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS).

Associations of pre- and postpartum lying time with metabolic, inflammation, and health status of lactating dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

The objective was to evaluate the associations of pre- and postpartum lying time (LT) with serum total calcium (Ca), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and haptoglobin concentrations, hemogram, and health status of dairy cows. A total of 1,052 Holstein cattle (401 nulliparous heifers and 651 parous cows) from 3 commercial dairy farms were fitted with electronic data loggers (IceQube, IceRobotics, Edinburgh, UK) on a hind leg 14 ± 3 d before parturition (dpp) and removed at 14 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) to assess their LT.

Genomic selection of milk fatty acid composition in Sarda dairy sheep: Effect of different phenotypes and relationship matrices on heritability and breeding value accuracy

Journal of Dairy Science -

Fatty acid (FA) composition is one of the most important aspects of milk nutritional quality. However, the inclusion of this trait as a breeding goal for dairy species is hampered by the logistics and high costs of phenotype recording. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a valid and cheap alternative to laboratory gas chromatography (GC) for predicting milk FA composition. Moreover, as for other novel phenotypes, the efficiency of selection for these traits can be enhanced by using genomic data.

Staphylococcus aureus related to bovine mastitis in Switzerland: Clonal diversity, virulence gene profiles, and antimicrobial resistance of isolates collected throughout 2017

Journal of Dairy Science -

Staphylococcus aureus can be associated with subclinical, acute, chronic, and toxic cases of bovine intramammary infections, leading to considerable financial losses for the dairy industry in Switzerland and worldwide. In addition, milk products are one of the most common food categories implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning in humans. Detailed information on the population structure, as well as the virulence and resistance characteristics of Staph. aureus originating from bovine mastitis milk is needed to allow for source attribution and risk assessment of Staph.

Immune cell populations residing in mesenteric adipose depots and mesenteric lymph nodes of lean dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

Inconsistent evidence of inflammatory immune cell infiltrates in adipose tissues with extensive triglyceride mobilization raises the possibility that regulatory or anti-inflammatory immune cell populations reside within the mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). These resident immune cell populations may be involved in attenuating the inflammatory response. We explored the immune cell population of MAT and MLN collected from lean, lactating Holstein cows without apparent disease in an abattoir (n = 42).

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