Agrégateur de flux

Interpretive Summaries, February 2021

Journal of Dairy Science -

Invited review: Crystals in cheese: More than a curiosity. By Kindstedt and Polowsky, page 1233. The presence of cheese crystals has been the object of scientific curiosity since the early 20th century. More recently, changes in cheesemaking technology and consumer preferences have increased the presence of crystals in the marketplace, generating both concern and enthusiasm. In some markets, crystals are viewed negatively by the industry and by consumers who mistake them for mold growth and spoilage, whereas in other markets some crystals are viewed very positively.

Histidine optimal supply in dairy cows through determination of a threshold efficiency

Journal of Dairy Science -

Two His deletion studies were conducted to examine the mechanisms used by dairy cows to support milk true protein yield (MTPY) when His supply is altered. The potential mechanisms involved in how the efficiency of utilization of His varied included reduced catabolism, more efficient mammary usage, and use of His labile pools. For the first study, 5 multicatheterized cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square plus 1 cow with 14-d periods. Treatments were abomasal infusion of increasing doses of His (0, 7.6, 15.2, and 20.8 g/d) in addition to a mixture of AA (595 g/d; casein profile excluding His).

Corrigendum to “Effects of physical forms of starter and milk allowance on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves” (J. Dairy Sci. 103:11300–11313)

Journal of Dairy Science -

The affiliation for author A. Pakdel was shown incorrectly on the title page (page 11300). Dr. Pakdel's affiliation is Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, PO Box 84156-83111.

Freezing kinetics and microstructure of ice cream from high-pressure-jet processing of ice cream mix

Journal of Dairy Science -

The effect of high-pressure-jet (HPJ) processing (0–500 MPa) on low-fat (6% fat) ice cream was studied by evaluating physiochemical properties before freezing, during dynamic freezing, and after hardening. An HPJ treatment ≥400 MPa decreased the density, increased the apparent size of colloidal particles, and altered rheological behavior (increased non-Newtonian behavior and consistency coefficients) of low-fat ice cream mix before freezing. During dynamic freezing, the particle size and consistency coefficient decreased but remained higher in 400 MPa–treated samples vs.

Recovery from udder cleft dermatitis in dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

Udder cleft dermatitis (UCD) is a common skin problem in dairy cows, localized at the fore udder attachment or between the udder halves. The main objectives of this study were to investigate spontaneous recovery from UCD in a longitudinal study and to investigate the treatment effect on UCD of a topical spray containing chelated copper and zinc in an additional treatment trial. Spontaneous recovery was investigated during a 1-yr longitudinal study in which 7 Swedish dairy herds were visited 9 times each, at 6-wk intervals.

Effects of pressurized thermal processing on native proteins of raw skim milk and its concentrate

Journal of Dairy Science -

Heating, pressurization, and shearing can modify native milk proteins. The effects of pressurized heating (0.5 vs. 10 MPa at 75 or 95°C) with shearing (1,000 s−1) on proteins of raw bovine skim milk (SM, ~9% total solids) and concentrated raw skim milk (CSM, ~22% total solids) was investigated. The effects of evaporative concentration at 55°C and pressurized shearing (10 MPa, 1,000 s−1) at 20°C were also examined. Evaporative concentration of SM resulted in destabilization of casein micelles and dissociation of αS1- and β-casein, rendering CSM prone to further reactions.

Effect of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation on metabolism of propionate in liver explants from dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

Our objective was to determine the effects of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation on the metabolism of propionate in liver tissue of dairy cows in the postpartum period. A total of 8 primiparous dairy cows were biopsied for liver tissue explants in 2 block-design experiments. Cows were 5.9 ± 2.8 (mean ± SD) days in milk, and the 2 experiments were run concurrently. Treatments for experiment 1 were 10 μM 2,4-dinitrophenol methyl ether (DNPME) or propylene carbonate (vehicle control). Treatments for experiment 2 were 5 mM of sodium salicylate (SAL) or no treatment (control).

Milk supplemented with dried seaweed affects the systemic innate immune response in preweaning dairy calves

Journal of Dairy Science -

Intact seaweed or seaweed extracts are used as feed supplements to improve the gut microbiome in young animals. Seaweeds provide functional polysaccharides, and they are a good source of vitamins, minerals, and phenolic compounds, all of which are relevant for immune system development. However, literature on the effects of dried seaweed supplementation on immune system development is limited, especially in calves. This experiment aimed to study the effect of feeding milk supplemented with Ulva lactuca, Ascophyllum nodosum, or Saccharina latissima on the systemic immune status of preweaning dairy calves.

Effects of goat milk enriched with oligosaccharides on microbiota structures, and correlation between microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in mouse large intestine

Journal of Dairy Science -

In this study, we explored the effects of combining goat milk and oligosaccharides on the large intestine environment of mice. A combination of goat milk with each of 3 oligosaccharides—stachyose, fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), and a prebiotics mix—were independently fed to mice. We investigated composition changes in the microbiota of the large intestine using 16S rRNA gene sequencing; measured short-chain fatty acid content using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry; and performed a Spearman correlation analysis between microorganisms and short-chain fatty acids.

Ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of 6 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by colloidal gold strip sensor

Journal of Dairy Science -

In this work, an oxicam group–selective monoclonal antibody against 6 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID; meloxicam, lornoxicam, piroxicam, sudoxicam, droxicam, and tenoxicam) was prepared. Also, a spacer arm with carboxyl group was derived at the hydroxyl of meloxicam to generate the meloxicam hapten. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were, respectively, 0.31 ng/mL for meloxicam, 0.49 ng/mL for lornoxicam, 2.90 ng/mL for piroxicam, 1.95 ng/mL for sudoxicam, 3.08 ng/mL for droxicam, and 5.36 ng/mL for tenoxicam.

An improved method for specific-target preamplification PCR analysis of single blastocysts useful for embryo sexing and high-throughput gene expression analysis

Journal of Dairy Science -

Gene expression analysis in preimplantation embryos has been used for answering fundamental questions related to development, prediction of pregnancy outcome, and other topics. Limited amounts of mRNA in preimplantation embryos hinders progress in studying the preimplantation embryo. Here, a method was developed involving direct synthesis and specific-target preamplification (STA) of cDNA for gene expression analysis in single blastocysts. Effective cell lysis and genomic DNA removal steps were incorporated into the method.

Short communication: Iodine content in bovine milk is lowly heritable and shows limited genetic variation

Journal of Dairy Science -

Milk and dairy products are considered important sources of iodine in several countries. Despite this, there is a paucity of studies that have investigated sources of variation of milk iodine, especially on a large scale. So far, it is not clear if milk iodine content could be increased through breeding in dairy cattle. Recently, a mid-infrared spectroscopy prediction model has been developed for an indirect quantification of iodine content in cow milk, as it is a faster and less expensive method that allows the prediction at population level.

Metabolic and hormonal control of energy utilization and partitioning from early to mid lactation in Sarda ewes and Saanen goats

Journal of Dairy Science -

In a recent study, we observed that starch-rich diets used in mid lactation induced lower milk production persistency and higher body fat accumulation in dairy ewes compared with dairy goats. Because these species differences could be linked to hormonal mechanisms that drive energy partitioning, in the same experiment, we explored the evolution of metabolic and hormonal status during lactation to test this hypothesis. Twenty mature Sarda dairy ewes and 20 mature Saanen goats [15–134 ± 11 d in milk (DIM), mean ± SD] were compared simultaneously.

Technical note: Genetic groups in single-step single nucleotide polymorphism best linear unbiased predictor

Journal of Dairy Science -

Genetic groups, also called unknown or phantom parents groups, are often used in dairy cattle genetic evaluations to account for selection that cannot be accounted for by known genetic relationships. With the advent of genomic evaluations, the theory of genetic groups was extended to the so-called single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP). In short, genetic groups can be fitted in ssGBLUP through regression effects, or by including them in the pedigree and computing the adequate combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix.

Variation in urea kinetics associated with ruminant species, dietary characteristics, and ruminal fermentation: A meta-analysis

Journal of Dairy Science -

The objective of this meta-analysis was to quantitatively summarize variations in urea kinetics related to ruminant species, diet composition, and ruminal fermentation. A database of 31 studies measuring urea recycling kinetics were used to derive 2 sets of linear mixed-effects regression models. Study was used as a random intercept and regressions were weighted by 1 divided by the standard error of the mean observation. Models were compared, when appropriated, using the concordance correlation coefficient, root estimated variance associated with study (σˆs) and error (σˆe) and corrected Akaike information criterion values.

Dynamic kinetic analysis of growth of Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized cow milk

Journal of Dairy Science -

The objective of this study was to develop a dynamic model for predicting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized cow milk under fluctuating temperature conditions during storage and temperature abuse. Six dynamic temperature profiles that simulated random fluctuation patterns were designed to change arbitrarily between 4 and 30°C. The growth data collected from 3 independent temperature profiles were used to determine the kinetic parameters and construct a growth model combining the primary and secondary models using a 1-step dynamic analysis method.

Provision of shelter during the prepartum period: Effects on behavior, blood analytes, and health status in dairy cows in winter

Journal of Dairy Science -

This study aimed to assess the effect of shelter provision during the prepartum period on lying, ruminating, and feeding behavior in outdoor-housed dairy cows exposed to winter weather conditions in a temperate climate. We also aimed to determine whether shelter provision during the prepartum period influenced blood analytes related to energy metabolism, body cleanliness, and health status. In this study, 2 cohorts of 12 multiparous Holstein prepartum cows were tested in winter. Twenty-five days before their expected calving date, the cows in each cohort were paired and randomly assigned to an open paddock without shelter or to one with access to an artificial shelter until calving.

Genetic and environmental analysis of female calf survival in the Israel Holstein cattle population

Journal of Dairy Science -

The objectives were to estimate the effects of various environmental factors on female calf survival of Israeli Holsteins, to estimate the economic value of calf survival under Israeli conditions, to estimate the genetic and environmental variance components for calf and cow survival using the individual animal model, to perform genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses of survival to first calving and herd life after first calving, to estimate the genetic and environmental trends for calf survival since 1985, to estimate genetic correlations of calf survival with the traits included in the current Israeli breeding index, and to estimate the consequences of inclusion of calf survival in the national selection index.

Determination of immunoglobulin concentrations and genetic parameters for colostrum and calf serum in Charolais animals

Journal of Dairy Science -

Colostrum samples from 366 Charolais primiparous cows, as well as serum from their calves at 24 to 48 h of age, were collected to gain an overview of the situation regarding passive immune transfer in beef cattle, from both the phenotypic and genetic points of view. All samples were analyzed to quantify their G1 immunoglobulins by radial immunodiffusion (RID) and their IgG, IgA, and IgM using ELISA. The average concentrations obtained in colostrum were 84 mg/mL for RID-IgG1, and 158 mg/mL, 4.5 mg/mL and 10.8 mg/mL for ELISA-IgG, -IgA, and -IgM, respectively.

One-carbon, carnitine, and glutathione metabolism-related biomarkers in peripartal Holstein cows are altered by prepartal body condition

Journal of Dairy Science -

We investigated how prepartal body condition score (BCS) alters key hepatic enzymes associated with 1-carbon, carnitine, and glutathione metabolism and the related biomarkers in liver tissue and plasma of periparturient dairy cows. Twenty-six multiparous Holstein dairy cows were retrospectively selected according to BCS at 4 wk prepartum and divided into high (HighBCS, BCS ≥ 3.50) and normal (NormBCS, BCS ≤ 3.25) BCS groups (n = 13 each). Blood plasma samples were obtained at −30, −10, 7, 15, and 30 d relative to calving.

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