Agrégateur de flux

Interpretive Summaries, August 2020

Journal of Dairy Science -

ADSA Foundation Scholar Award: Influencing hepatic metabolism: Can nutrient partitioning be modulated to optimize metabolic health in the transition dairy cow? By White, page 6741. Nutrient utilization is critical to support growth, production, and animal health, especially during metabolically challenging periods such as the transition to lactation. Great progress has been made in understanding nutrient partitioning during this period; however, there are knowledge gaps and areas that merit continual research.

Letter to the Editor: A response to Adesogan et al. (2020)

Journal of Dairy Science -

In their letter, Adesogan et al. (2020) expressed concern regarding studies examining the ensiling process that are submitted for peer review in the Journal of Dairy Science. Specifically, 2 concerns were raised. First, it was suggested that, “the Journal of Dairy Science Editorial Board is planning to impose stricter criteria on acceptance of silage-focused studies or to stop accepting them.” I wish to clarify any confusion around this suggestion by stating that the journal has no plan to impose stricter conditions on silage-focused studies or to stop accepting them outright.

Different vacuum levels, vacuum reduction during low milk flow, and different cluster detachment levels affect milking performance and teat condition in dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

Traditionally, machine milking is performed at a constant vacuum supply. The system vacuum has to be set high enough to allow a sufficiently high vacuum at the teat end, despite the inevitable vacuum drop caused by milk flow. This leads to an increased vacuum load on the teat, especially when milk flow ceases at the end of milking. We tested the hypothesis that a milk flow–controlled adaptation of vacuum settings during milking allows even higher vacuum levels than are usually recommended during the period of high milk flow if the vacuum is reduced during low milk flow.

Discovery of different metabotypes in overconditioned dairy cows by means of machine learning

Journal of Dairy Science -

Using data from targeted metabolomics in serum in combination with machine learning (ML) approaches, we aimed at (1) identifying divergent metabotypes in overconditioned cows and at (2) exploring how metabotypes are associated with lactation performance, blood metabolites, and hormones. In a previously established animal model, 38 pregnant multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 2 groups that were fed differently to reach either high (HBCS) or normal (NBCS) body condition score (BCS) and backfat thickness (BFT) until dryoff at −49 d before calving [NBCS: BCS < 3.5 (3.02 ± 0.24) and BFT < 1.2 cm (0.92 ± 0.21), mean ± SD; HBCS: BCS > 3.75 (3.82 ± 0.33) and BFT > 1.4 cm (2.36 ± 0.35)].

Effects of lipopolysaccharide exposure in primary bovine ruminal epithelial cells

Journal of Dairy Science -

The objective of this study was to investigate whether cultured ruminal epithelial cells (REC) responded to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and determine whether LPS induced a proinflammatory response. Primary bovine REC were isolated and grown in culture for 2 studies. In study 1, REC were isolated from Holstein bull calves (n = 8) and grown in culture for 10 to 12 d. Cells were then exposed to 0, 10,000, 50,000, or 200,000 endotoxin (E)U/mL of LPS (Escherichia coli O55:B5) for either 6 or 24 h.

Growth and survival characteristics of Paucilactobacillus wasatchensis WDCO4

Journal of Dairy Science -

Understanding characteristics that permit survival and growth of Paucilactobacillus wasatchensis as part of the nonstarter microbiota of cheese is important for minimizing unwanted gas formation in cheese that can cause downgrading because of slits and cracks. The ability of Plb. wasatchensis WDC04 to survive pasteurization was studied by inoculating raw milk with 108 cfu/mL and measuring survival after processing through a high-temperature, short-time pasteurizer. Extent and rate of growth of Plb.

Short communication: Variation in feed efficiency hampers use of carbon dioxide as a tracer gas in measuring methane emissions in on-farm conditions

Journal of Dairy Science -

Breeding cows for low CH4 emissions requires that the trait is variable and that it can be recorded with low cost from an adequate number of individuals and with high precision, but not necessarily with high accuracy if the trait is measured with high repeatability. The CH4:CO2 ratio in expired breath is a trait often used as a tracer with the production of CO2 predicted from body weight (BW), energy-corrected milk yield, and days of pregnancy. This approach assumes that efficiency of energy utilization for maintenance and production is constant.

Effect of xylazine administration before laparoscopic abomasopexy to correct left displaced abomasum on markers of stress in dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

Left displacement of the abomasum in dairy cows is a disease diagnosed all over the world. In Germany, a common method for its correction is laparoscopic abomasopexy (LA). The aim of the study was to assess cortisol and substance P concentrations, behavioral patterns, and feeding and rumination times during and after LA in cattle treated with xylazine before LA compared with nonsedated cattle. A total of 28 cattle that had been referred to a veterinary teaching hospital with a diagnosis of left displacement of the abomasum were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups.

Evaluation of source of corn silage and trace minerals on rumen characteristics and passage rate of Holstein cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

The effects of source of corn silage and trace mineral on rumen fermentation, turnover, and particle passage rates were evaluated with 8 ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging 83 (standard error = 5) days in milk in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 28-d periods. The diets consisted (dry basis) of 55% conventional (CON) or brown midrib-3 (BM3) corn silage, 2% chopped wheat straw, and 43% grain mix with either sulfate (STM) or hydroxy (HTM) source of Cu, Zn, and Mn trace minerals.

Effect of season on the in vitro fertilizing ability of frozen–thawed Spanish bovine spermatozoa

Journal of Dairy Science -

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of season on the in vitro fertilizing ability of bovine spermatozoa and subsequent embryo development. Bovine oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro with Holstein dairy bull sperm cells collected and frozen in different seasons (winter, spring, and summer). On d 2 and 8 postinsemination, cleavage and blastocyst rates, respectively, were recorded; the blastocysts were graded for morphology. The number of sperm cells binding to the zona pellucida of oocytes, together with the number of nuclei in the developing blastocysts, were assessed after staining with Hoechst.

Electrostatic complexation of β-lactoglobulin aggregates with κ-carrageenan and the resulting emulsifying and foaming properties

Journal of Dairy Science -

The electrostatic complexation of protein and polysaccharide and the functional properties of the complexes are significantly affected by the structure of protein aggregates and are important in the development of new food ingredients. In this work, natural globular β-lactoglobulin (NGBLG), β-lactoglobulin nanoparticles (BLGNP), and β-lactoglobulin fibrils (BLGF) were prepared and complexed with κ-carrageenan (κ-car). Phase diagrams of the NGBLG–, BLGNP–, and BLGF–κ-car systems were established and divided into 4 regions: mixed soluble polymers (I), intramolecular soluble complex (II), intermolecular soluble complex (III), and intermolecular insoluble complex (IV).

Prenatal exposure to different diets influences programming of glucose and insulin metabolism in dairy ewes

Journal of Dairy Science -

Nutrition in fetal and postnatal life can influence the development of several biological systems, with permanent effects in adult life. The aim of this work was to investigate in dairy sheep whether diets rich in starch or fiber during intrauterine life (75 d before lambing) and postnatal life (from weaning to first pregnancy; growth phase) program glucose and insulin metabolism in the female offspring during their first pregnancy. Starting from intrauterine life, 20 nulliparous Sarda ewes were exposed to 4 dietary regimens (n = 5 per group) based on different dietary carbohydrates during their intrauterine life and their subsequent growth phase: (1) the fiber (FI) diet during both intrauterine and growth life, (2) the starch (ST) diet during both intrauterine and growth life, (3) the FI diet in intrauterine life followed by the ST diet in the growth phase, and (4) the ST diet in intrauterine life followed by the FI diet in the growth phase.

Estimating the net return of a remote calving alarm system in a dairy farm

Journal of Dairy Science -

The aim of the study was to evaluate the net return of the implementation of a remote calving monitoring system for obstetrical and neonatal assistance on the herd economy in a dairy farm model. A total of 680 parturitions over a 7-yr period were evaluated. Age at first calving was restricted from 23 to 27 mo for primiparous cows to be included. Among groups of cows that were ready to calve in a 15-d interval, primiparous and multiparous were randomly assigned to the experimental group and monitored through a calving alarm system, whereas the others accounted for controls.

Distribution of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, magnesium, potassium, and sodium in major fractions of donkey milk

Journal of Dairy Science -

The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of Ca, P, S, Mg, K, and Na, and their distribution in major fractions of donkey milk (i.e., fat, casein, whey proteins, and aqueous phase). Individual milk samples were collected by mechanical milking from 16 clinically healthy lactating donkeys. Milk yield per milking was recorded and milk gross composition, casein content, and pH were determined. Whole milk samples were centrifuged to separate fat and to obtain skim milk. Skim milk samples were ultracentrifuged to separate a sedimentable casein pellet and to obtain a supernatant whey (soluble) fraction, which was then ultrafiltered to obtain the aqueous phase of donkey milk.

The use of ensiled olive cake in the diets of Friesian cows increases beneficial fatty acids in milk and Halloumi cheese and alters the expression of SREBF1 in adipose tissue

Journal of Dairy Science -

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of ensiled olive cake, a by-product of olive oil production, on milk yield and composition and on fatty acid (FA) profile of milk and Halloumi cheese from cows. Furthermore, the effect of olive cake on the expression of selected genes involved in mammary and adipose lipid metabolism was assessed in a subset of animals. A total of 24 dairy cows in mid lactation were allocated into 2 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic feeding treatments, named the control (CON) diet and the olive cake (OC) diet, in which part of the forages (alfalfa, barley hay, and barley straw) were replaced with ensiled OC as 10% of dry matter according to a 2 × 2 crossover design with two 28-d experimental periods.

Whole-lactation feed intake, milk yield, and energy balance of Holstein and Swedish Red dairy cows fed grass-clover silage and 2 levels of byproduct-based concentrate

Journal of Dairy Science -

Ruminants can produce meat and milk from fibrous feed and byproducts not suitable for human consumption. However, high-yielding dairy cows are generally fed a high proportion of cereal grain and pulses, which could be consumed directly by humans. If high production of dairy cows could be maintained with ingredients of low human interest, the sustainability of dairy production would improve. In the present study, 37 multiparous [Holstein (n = 13) and Swedish Red (n = 24)] dairy cows were followed over a whole lactation.

Quantification of risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus in cattle herds: A systematic search and meta-analysis of observational studies

Journal of Dairy Science -

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is endemic in many parts of the world, and multiple countries have implemented surveillance activities for disease control or eradication. In such control programs, the disease-free status can be compromised by factors that pose risks for introduction or persistence of the virus. The aim of the present study was to gain a comprehensive overview of possible risk factors for BVDV infection in cattle herds in Europe and to assess their importance. Papers that considered risk factors for BVDV infection in cattle were identified through a systematic search.

Short communication: Evaluation of an eating time sensor for use in pasture-based dairy systems

Journal of Dairy Science -

The assessment of grazing behavior is important for research and practice in pasture-grazed dairy farm systems. However, few devices are available that enable assessment of cow grazing behavior at an individual animal level. This study investigated whether commercially available Smarttag “eating time” sensors (Nedap Livestock Management, Groenlo, the Netherlands) were suitable for recording the grazing time of cows. Smarttag sensors were mounted on the neck collars of multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in a herd in Taranaki, New Zealand.

Validation of Brix refractometers and a hydrometer for measuring the quality of caprine colostrum

Journal of Dairy Science -

On-farm assessment of caprine colostrum quality is important for goat farmers; the ability to quickly recognize whether colostrum is suitable to feed to kids helps achieve successful passive transfer of immunity. The study compared the use of optical and digital Brix refractometers and a hydrometer against the international gold standard radial immunodiffusion (RID), using both fresh and frozen samples. A locally available ELISA methodology was included for comparison. A total of 300 samples were collected from 2 farms (farm 1: n = 157, collected by research staff within 24 h of parturition; farm 2: n = 143, collected by the farmer within 12 h of parturition).

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