Journal of Dairy Science


Invited review: Stress resistance of Cronobacter spp. affecting control of its growth during food production. By Wang et al., page 11348. In this review, we summarized Cronobacter spp. isolated from a variety of sources, including dairy products. The environmental stress resistance of Cronobacter spp. and its influencing factors were analyzed. Stress resistance is the main reason for the presence of Cronobacter in food processing environments and final products. We reviewed the latest detection methods, introduced methods of inactivating Cronobacter spp.

Corrigendum to “Effect of therapeutic administration of β-lactam antibiotics on the bacterial community and antibiotic resistance patterns in milk” (J. Dairy Sci. 104:7018–7025)

An error was noted in the text on page 7020; the corrections are shown in bold: “The average values of the Shannon diversity index and the average Chao 1 index for the microbiota were similar among the different periods, which suggested the total number of species did not significantly increase the richness of the microbiota (P > 0.05). However, the mean values of the Simpson index had significant differences among the different periods (P < 0.05), which indicated that the antibiotic treatment might have had an effect on the microbial community diversity (Figure 1).”

Effect of a milk byproduct–based calf starter feed on dairy calf nutrient consumption, rumen development, and performance when fed different milk levels

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a milk byproduct–based starter pellet, high in lactose, on feed intakes, growth, and rumen development when calves were fed either a high or low level of milk. This was done by using a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 120 Holstein heifer calves randomly assigned to 1 of 2 milk treatments and 1 of 2 feed treatments upon enrollment at birth. Calves were either assigned to a low (LM) or high (HM) level of milk replacer by an automated milk-feeding system for individually-housed calves.

Effect of GnRH administered at the time of artificial insemination for cows detected in estrus by conventional estrus detection or an automated activity-monitoring system

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of GnRH at the time of artificial insemination (AI) on ovulation, progesterone 7 d post-AI, and pregnancy in cows detected in estrus using traditional methods (tail chalk removal and mount acceptance visualization) or an automated activity-monitoring (AAM) system. We hypothesized that administration of GnRH at the time of AI would increase ovulation rate, plasma progesterone post-AI, and pregnancy per AI (P/AI) in cows detected in estrus.

Invited review: A quarter of a century—International genetic evaluation of dairy sires using MACE methodology

For the past few decades, the international exchange of genetic materials has accelerated. This acceleration has been more substantial for dairy cattle compared with other species. The industry faced the need to put international genetic evaluation (IGE) systems in place. The Interbull Centre has been conducting IGE for various dairy cattle breeds and traits. This study reviews the past and the current status of IGE for dairy cattle, emphasizing the most prominent and well-established method of IGE, namely multiple across-country evaluation (MACE), and the challenges that should be addressed in the future of IGE.

Gene mapping, gene-set analysis, and genomic prediction of postpartum blood calcium in Holstein cows

The onset of lactation results in a sudden irreversible loss of Ca for colostrum and milk synthesis. Some cows are unable to quickly adapt to this demand and succumb to clinical hypocalcemia, whereas a larger proportion of cows develop subclinical hypocalcemia that predisposes them to other peripartum diseases. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive genomic analysis of blood total Ca concentration in periparturient Holstein cows. We first performed a genomic scan and a subsequent gene-set analysis to identify candidate genes, biological pathways, and molecular mechanisms affecting postpartum Ca concentration.

Factors influencing how Canadian dairy producers respond to a downer cow scenario

Understanding how downer cattle are managed allows for the evaluation of strengths and weaknesses in these practices, which is an important step toward improving the care these animals receive. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with the care and management of downer cattle by Canadian dairy producers. Data were obtained from the 2015 National Dairy Study, and analysis was limited to the 371 respondents completing the downer cow scenario. The scenario described a downer cow that the producer wanted to keep in their herd but must be moved, and was followed by questions addressing the cow's care and management.

Cheese ripening in nonconventional conditions: A multiparameter study applied to Protected Geographical Indication Canestrato di Moliterno cheese

A multiparameter study was performed to evaluate the effect of fondaco, a traditional ripening cellar without any artificial temperature and relative humidity control, on the chemical, microbiological, and sensory characteristics of Protected Geographical Indication Canestrato di Moliterno cheese. Ripening in such a nonconventional environment was associated with lower counts of lactococci, lactobacilli, and total viable bacteria, and higher presence of enterococci, in comparison with ripening in a controlled maturation room.

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of chlorhexidine- and lactic acid-based teat disinfectants: An intervention trial assessing bacterial selection and susceptibility

Teat disinfection is a recommended preventive tool to improve udder health and to prevent new intramammary infections. However, side effects are discussed, such as bacterial selection of less-susceptible bacteria with the application of certain teat disinfectants. The objective of this study was to assess the species composition and bacterial in vitro susceptibility by means of an interventive trial. For this purpose, 3 different postmilking teat treatments (disinfection with 0.215% chlorhexidine or 3.5% lactic acid, or control group with no dipping) were applied to 28 cows in a 6-d intervention approach using a split-udder design.

Characterization of metabolic pathways for biosynthesis of the flavor compound 3-methylbutanal by Lactococcus lactis

3-Methylbutanal is a key volatile compound that imparts a nutty flavor to Cheddar cheese. Lactococcus lactis has been successfully applied as a starter to increase the level of 3-methylbutanal produced during the ripening of cheese. However, the mechanism of action and genetic diversity of this bacterium for 3-methylbutanal biosynthesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the association between the L. lactis genotype and phenotype in the biosynthesis of 3-methylbutanal via both direct and indirect pathways.

Influence of whey protein isolate on pasting, thermal, and structural characteristics of oat starch

We investigated the effects of different concentrations of whey protein isolate (WPI) on oat starch characteristics in terms of pasting, thermal, and structural properties. The pasting properties of the starch showed that hot paste viscosity increased with the addition of WPI in the system, and relative breakdown decreased. Thermal analysis showed a significant effect of WPI on oat starch by increasing the peak temperature of differential scanning calorimeter endotherms. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that WPI increased the ordered structuration of starch paste, as evident by an increase in relative crystallinity; in addition, a decrease in infrared bands at 1,024 cm−1 and 1,080 cm−1 suggested decreased gelatinization of oat starch granules.

Negative producer price differentials in Federal Milk Marketing Orders: Explanations, implications, and policy options

In Federal Milk Marketing Orders (FMMO), which use multiple component pricing schemas, farmers are paid for delivered quantity of butterfat, protein, and other solids, plus a producer price differential (PPD). The PPD captures the difference between the total handler obligations to the pool and the total component value of milk. In 2020, record negative PPD caused widespread frustration among dairy farmers. The primary objective of this research was to provide a comprehensive analysis of factors that affect PPD and to quantify their relative importance.

Effects of varying casein and pectin concentrations on the rheology of high-protein cultured milk beverages stored at ambient temperature

Shelf-stable cultured milk beverages that have high protein levels can be difficult to successfully manufacture. With increasing protein level, rapid phase separation and gel formation occur in cultured beverages, which may not be prevented even with the inclusion of stabilizers such as high methoxy (HM) pectin. To limit protein aggregation in cultured milk beverages we investigated micellar casein as an interesting alternative to milk, due to the absence of whey proteins, which can contribute to increased gel strength in cultured products.

Production effects and bioavailability of N-acetyl-l-methionine in lactating dairy cows

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the production effects of N-acetyl-l-methionine (NALM; experiment 1) and to estimate its bioavailability (BA) and rumen escape (RE; experiment 2), respectively, in lactating dairy cows. In experiment 1, 18 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated, 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. Treatments were (1) basal diet estimated to supply 45 g/d digestible Met (dMet) or 1.47% of metabolizable protein (MP; control), (2) basal diet top-dressed with 32 g/d of NALM to achieve dMet supply of 2.2% of MP, and (3) basal diet top-dressed with 56 g/d of NALM to achieve dMet supply of 2.6% of MP.

Acute and chronic effects of cortisol on milk yield, the expression of key receptors, and apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells in Saanen goats

Cortisol (CORT) induces mammary development in late gestation and is fundamental to the differentiation of mammary epithelial cells and lactogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between CORT, insulin, prolactin, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 in milk as well as the effect of CORT on the expression of receptors of insulin (INSR), prolactin (PRLR), growth hormone (GHR); we also studied the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1R), glucocorticoid (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid (NR3C2), B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), BCL-2-like protein X (BAX) genes, and the apoptosis rate of mammary epithelial cells of lactating Saanen goats in vivo and in vitro.

Genome-wide association study on milk production and somatic cell score for Thai dairy cattle using weighted single-step approach with random regression test-day model

Genome-wide association studies are a powerful tool to identify genomic regions and variants associated with phenotypes. However, only limited mutual confirmation from different studies is available. The objectives of this study were to identify genomic regions as well as genes and pathways associated with the first-lactation milk, fat, protein, and total solid yields; fat, protein, and total solid percentage; and somatic cell score (SCS) in a Thai dairy cattle population. Effects of SNPs were estimated by a weighted single-step GWAS, which back-solved the genomic breeding values predicted using single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) fitting a single-trait random regression test-day model.

Dairy farmers' perspectives on providing cow-calf contact in the pasture-based systems of New Zealand

Separation of the cow and calf shortly after birth is a common practice on commercial dairy farms around the world, but there are emerging concerns about this practice among citizens and other stakeholders. Continuous improvement of on-farm management practices in collaboration with dairy sector stakeholders increases the likelihood that farming systems evolve in a way that is consistent with societal expectations. Few commercial dairy farms provide extended cow-calf contact, and there is little understanding of how dairy farmers view this practice.

Physiological adaptations in early-lactation cows result in differential responses to calcium perturbation relative to nonlactating, nonpregnant cows

The peripartal cow experiences a rapid change in calcium metabolism at the onset of lactation. Research has focused on understanding how mammary-derived factors, such as serotonin (5HT) and parathyroid hormone like hormone (PTHLH), aid in coordinating these calcemic adaptations to lactation. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine how induced subclinical hypocalcemia influences physiological responses, specifically the 5HT-PTHLH-Ca axis, in lactating and nonlactating dairy cows to elucidate the potential contribution of the mammary gland.

Lipopolysaccharide induces lipolysis and insulin resistance in adipose tissue from dairy cows

Intense and protracted adipose tissue (AT) fat mobilization increases the risk of metabolic and inflammatory periparturient diseases in dairy cows. This vulnerability increases when cows have endotoxemia—common during periparturient diseases such as mastitis, metritis, and pneumonia—but the mechanisms are unknown. Fat mobilization intensity is determined by the balance between lipolysis and lipogenesis. Around parturition, the rate of lipolysis surpasses that of lipogenesis, leading to enhanced free fatty acid release into the circulation.