Agrégateur de flux

Dairy farmers' perspectives on providing cow-calf contact in the pasture-based systems of New Zealand

Journal of Dairy Science -

Separation of the cow and calf shortly after birth is a common practice on commercial dairy farms around the world, but there are emerging concerns about this practice among citizens and other stakeholders. Continuous improvement of on-farm management practices in collaboration with dairy sector stakeholders increases the likelihood that farming systems evolve in a way that is consistent with societal expectations. Few commercial dairy farms provide extended cow-calf contact, and there is little understanding of how dairy farmers view this practice.

Physiological adaptations in early-lactation cows result in differential responses to calcium perturbation relative to nonlactating, nonpregnant cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

The peripartal cow experiences a rapid change in calcium metabolism at the onset of lactation. Research has focused on understanding how mammary-derived factors, such as serotonin (5HT) and parathyroid hormone like hormone (PTHLH), aid in coordinating these calcemic adaptations to lactation. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine how induced subclinical hypocalcemia influences physiological responses, specifically the 5HT-PTHLH-Ca axis, in lactating and nonlactating dairy cows to elucidate the potential contribution of the mammary gland.

Lipopolysaccharide induces lipolysis and insulin resistance in adipose tissue from dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

Intense and protracted adipose tissue (AT) fat mobilization increases the risk of metabolic and inflammatory periparturient diseases in dairy cows. This vulnerability increases when cows have endotoxemia—common during periparturient diseases such as mastitis, metritis, and pneumonia—but the mechanisms are unknown. Fat mobilization intensity is determined by the balance between lipolysis and lipogenesis. Around parturition, the rate of lipolysis surpasses that of lipogenesis, leading to enhanced free fatty acid release into the circulation.

Milking system and premilking routines have strong effect on the microbial community in bulk tank milk

Journal of Dairy Science -

In this study, we investigated the variation in the microbial community present in bulk tank milk samples and the potential effect of different farm management factors. Bulk tank milk samples were collected repeatedly over one year from 42 farms located in northern Sweden. Total and thermoresistant bacteria counts and 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon sequencing were used to characterize microbial community composition. The microbial community was in general heterogeneous both within and between different farms and the community composition in the bulk tank milk was commonly dominated by Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Streptococcus, unclassified Peptostreptococcaceae, and Staphylococcus.

Dairy farmer practices and attitudes relating to grass-based, high-feed-input, and indoor production systems in Ireland

Journal of Dairy Science -

Grazing has become a less common dairy farming practice in most European countries. Ireland is an exception with its predominantly grass-based system. After the removal of European milk quotas, farmers were encouraged to expand within a grass-based paradigm rather than pursuing yield increases through feeding more concentrate. This research assessed Irish dairy farmer attitudes toward grass-based, higher-feed-input, and indoor paradigms. A paradigm of agriculture is a shared understanding about how agriculture should be carried out.

Monitoring the ripening attributes of Turkish white cheese using miniaturized vibrational spectrometers

Journal of Dairy Science -

Monitoring the ripening process by prevalent analytic methods is laborious, expensive, and time consuming. Our objective was to develop a rapid and simple method based on vibrational spectroscopic techniques to understand the biochemical changes occurring during the ripening process of Turkish white cheese and to generate predictive algorithms for the determination of the content of key cheese quality and ripening indicator compounds. Turkish white cheese samples were produced in a pilot plant scale and ripened for 100 d, and samples were analyzed at 20 d intervals during storage.

Proper motility enhances rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis with decreased saturation of dissolved gases in rumen simulation technique

Journal of Dairy Science -

The physiological function of the reticulorumen plays an essential role in ruminant nutrition, and detailed knowledge of rumen motility can further advance understanding of ruminant nutrition and physiology. Rumen motility was simulated by setting different stirrer rotation speeds in a rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rotation speeds on rumen fermentation, saturation factor of dissolved gases, hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) emissions, microbial protein synthesis, and selected microbial population using RUSITEC.

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the association between milk metabolites and udder quarter health status in dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the association between milk metabolome and udder quarter health status in dairy cows. Mammary gland health status was defined by combining information provided by traditional somatic cell count (SCC) and differential SCC (DSCC), which expresses the percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes over total SCC. Quarter milk samples were collected in triplicate (d 1 to 3) from 10 Simmental cows, 5 defined as cases and 5 defined as controls according to SCC levels at d 0.

Use of casein micelles to improve the solubility of hydrophobic pea proteins in aqueous solutions via low-temperature homogenization

Journal of Dairy Science -

The dairy industry struggles to maintain consumer attention in the midst of declining fluid milk sales. Current trends create an opportunity to incorporate plant-based proteins with milk to produce a high-protein, multisourced, functional food product. Plant-based proteins, such as those in peas, can be challenging to use in food systems because of their low solubility and undesirable off-flavors. Casein micelles have unique structural properties that allow for interactions with small ions and larger macromolecules that aid in their noteworthy ability as a nanovehicle for hydrophobic compounds.

Lactational performance and plasma and muscle amino acid concentrations in dairy cows fed diets supplying 2 levels of digestible histidine and metabolizable protein

Journal of Dairy Science -

The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary levels of digestible histidine (dHis) and MP on lactational performance and plasma and muscle concentrations of free AA in dairy cows. A randomized block design experiment was conducted with 48 Holstein cows, including 20 primiparous, averaging (±SD) 103 ± 22 d in milk and 45 ± 9 kg/d milk yield at the beginning of the experiment. A 2-wk covariate period preceded 12 experimental wk, of which 10 wk were for data and sample collection.

Effects of restricted dietary phosphorus supply to dry cows on periparturient calcium status

Journal of Dairy Science -

Restricted dietary P supply to transition dairy cows has recently been reported to beneficially affect the Ca balance of periparturient cows. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this effect on the Ca balance can be reproduced when limiting the P-restricted feeding to the last 4 wk of gestation. A total of 30 dairy cows in late pregnancy were randomly assigned to a dry cow diet with either low or adequate P content (0.16 and 0.30% P in DM, respectively) to be fed in the 4 wk before expected calving.

Genomic loci and genetic parameters for uterine diseases in first-parity Holstein cows and associations with milk production and fertility

Journal of Dairy Science -

Based on the clinical stage (e.g., vaginal discharge) and bacterial species, several forms of uterine diseases (UD) exist and can be classified as different traits [i.e., different stages of endometritis (EM) and metritis (MET)], which may differ in their genetic background and causal physiological mechanisms. Consequently, the present study aimed to study (1) the effect of UD on 305-d lactation and fertility, (2) the estimation of heritabilities for UD traits using pedigree- and SNP-based relationships, and (3) genome-wide associations to detect significant SNP markers and to infer candidate genes for UD traits.

Effects of postpartum milking strategy on plasma mineral concentrations and colostrum, transition milk, and milk yield and composition in multiparous dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

The effects of postpartum milking strategy on plasma mineral concentrations, blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration, and colostrum, transition milk, and first monthly test milk yield and composition were evaluated in 90 multiparous Jersey and Jersey × Holstein crossbreed cows from a commercial farm. Before first postpartum milking, cows were randomly assigned to the following milking strategies, implemented during the first 2 d postpartum: twice-a-day milking (M2, standard industry practice, milking every 12 h; n = 22), once-a-day milking (M1, milking every 24 h; n = 24), restricted milking (MR, 3-L milking every 12 h; n = 21), and delayed milking (MD, no milking for the first 24 h, and milking every 12 h afterward; n = 23).

Genetic parameters and association of national evaluations with breeding values for health traits in US organic Holstein cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

Among other regulations, organic cows in the United States cannot receive antibiotics and preserve their organic status, emphasizing the importance of prevention of illness and benefit of high genetic merit for disease resistance. At the same time, data underlying national genetic evaluations primarily come from conventional cows, drawing concern to the possibility of a genotype by environment interaction whereby the value of a genotype varies depending on the environment, and potentially limits the relevance of these evaluations to organic cows.

Comparison of microbiota of recycled manure solids and straw bedding used in dairy farms in eastern Canada

Journal of Dairy Science -

Recycled manure solids (RMS) bedding is an alternative bedding option that is growing in popularity on Canadian dairy farms. However, the microbiological characteristics and production of RMS bedding are poorly documented under on-farm conditions in eastern Canada. This bedding could support the presence of pathogens and could have an effect on cow and human health. The aim of this study was to describe the RMS microbiota when used under dairy cows and compare it with straw bedding. Unused and used bedding from 27 RMS and 61 straw-bedded dairy farms were collected and compared using 16S amplicon sequencing, bacterial counts, and Salmonella spp.

The pharmacokinetics of transdermal flunixin in lactating dairy goats

Journal of Dairy Science -

Flunixin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug approved for use in cattle to manage pyrexia associated with bovine respiratory disease, mastitis, and endotoxemia. In the United States, no nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are approved for use in goats, but analgesics are needed for management of painful conditions to improve animal welfare. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of transdermal flunixin in dairy goats to determine a milk withdrawal interval (WDI) to avoid violative residue contamination in the food supply.

Effect of midday pasteurizer washing on thermoduric organisms and their progression through Cheddar cheese manufacturing and ripening

Journal of Dairy Science -

Thermoduric bacteria are known to affect the quality of Cheddar cheese, with manifested defects including slits, weak body, and blowing. Thermoduric bacteria are likely to increase in numbers during cheese-making, as in-process conditions are conducive to proliferation. The present study was conducted to track thermoduric bacterial progression during an 18- to 20-h Cheddar cheese production run and during ripening when the pasteurizer was washed at midway through the production day. This study also correlated a broad range of chemical changes to the growth of thermoduric bacteria during ripening.

Occurrence and greater intensity of estrus in recipient lactating dairy cows improve pregnancy per embryo transfer

Journal of Dairy Science -

The aim of this study was to determine the association between occurrence and intensity of estrous expression with pregnancy success in recipient lactating dairy cows subjected to embryo transfer (ET). Two observational studies were conducted. Holstein cows were synchronized using the same timed ET protocol, based on estradiol and progesterone in both experiments. At 9 d after the end of the timed ET protocol only animals that had ovulated were implanted with a 7-d embryo [experiment 1 (Exp. 1); n = 1,401 ET events from 1,045 cows, and experiment 2 (Exp.

Development of ruminating behavior in Holstein calves between birth and 30 days of age

Journal of Dairy Science -

Ruminating behavior accompanies the development of the rumen and the intake of solid feed in calves. However, few studies have reported on the emergence and development of rumination. In this study, we observed ruminating behavior changes of 56 Holstein calves (body weight at birth = 40.1 ± 3.96 kg; mean ± standard deviation) from birth to 30 d of age under the feeding management of suckling calves that were only fed pelleted concentrate feed and milk. All calves were housed in individual pens equipped with infrared cameras.

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