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Genomic inbreeding coefficients using imputed genotypes: Assessing different estimators in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

The objective of this study was to estimate inbreeding coefficients in Holstein dairy cattle using imputed SNPs data. A data set of 95,540 Italian Holstein dairy cows from the routine genomic evaluations of the Italian National Association of Holstein, Brown, and Jersey Breeders were analyzed, with 84,445 imputed SNP. Ten widely used genomic inbreeding estimators were tested, including 4 PLINK v1.9 estimators (F, FHAT1, FHAT2, FHAT3), 3 genomic relationship matrix (GRM)-based methods [VanRaden's first method with observed allele frequencies (FGRM) or with fixed frequencies at 0.5 (FGRM05), VanRaden's third method, allelic frequency free and pedigree regressed (FGRM2)], runs of homozygosity (ROH)-based estimators in a complete (FROH) and simplified version (FROH2), and proportion of homozygous SNP (FPH).

Public perceptions of potential adaptations for mitigating heat stress on Australian dairy farms

Journal of Dairy Science -

Temperature variability resulting from climate change poses challenges around the world for livestock production and the welfare of the animals in these systems. As animal industries attempt to combat these challenges, it is vital to understand how potential changes implemented by farmers resonate with societal values. The aims of this study were to determine how different proposed changes to mitigate heat stress in dairy cattle influence public perceptions toward Australian dairy farm systems, including perceptions of (1) cow welfare, (2) confidence in the industry, and (3) trust in farmers.

Heritability of subclinical endometritis in Norwegian Red cows

Journal of Dairy Science -

Subclinical endometritis (SCE) is highly prevalent in dairy cows, causing negative effects on reproductive outcomes and the producer economy. Genetic selection for animals with better resilience against uterine disease should be prioritized due to both sustainability and animal welfare. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the heritability of SCE in the Norwegian Red (NR) population. Moreover, future perspectives of the condition as a fertility phenotype for breeding are discussed.

Inoculum size of co-fermentative culture affects the sensory quality and volatile metabolome of fermented milk over storage

Journal of Dairy Science -

Lacticaseibacillus paracasei PC-01 is a probiotic candidate isolated from naturally fermented yak milk in Lhasa, Tibet, and it has been shown to possess excellent milk fermentation properties. This study used Lacticaseibacillus paracasei PC-01 as a co-fermentation strain to investigate the effect of inoculum size with a commercial starter in milk fermentation on the product flavor and profile of volatile metabolites over 28 d of cold storage. Lacticaseibacillus paracasei PC-01 was allowed to ferment in pasteurized milk with or without the commercial starter (YF-L904) at 42°C until the pH decreased to 4.5.

Dry malt extract from barley partially replacing ground corn in diets of dairy cows: Nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and milk composition

Journal of Dairy Science -

Dry malt extract (DME) has been used in animal nutrition as an alternative source of rapidly fermentable carbohydrate. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the partial replacement of ground corn with DME in diets of dairy cows on apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation, predicted rumen microbial protein supply, N excretion, serum urea-N concentration, and milk yield and composition. Twenty-eight Holstein cows (35.3 ± 5.88 kg/d milk yield and 148 ± 78 d in milk), 4 of which were rumen cannulated, were blocked according to the presence of rumen cannulas, parity, milk yield, and days in milk and enrolled into a crossover design experiment.

Effects of micellar casein concentrate purity and milk fat on sulfur/eggy flavor in ultrapasteurized milk-based beverages

Journal of Dairy Science -

Our objectives were to determine the level of milk-derived whey protein (MDWP) removal necessary to achieve no detectable sulfur/eggy flavor in ultrapasteurized fat-free micellar casein concentrate (MCC) beverages (6.5% protein) and in the same beverages containing 1 and 2% milk fat. Micellar casein concentrate with 95% MDWP removal was produced from skim milk (50°C) with a 3×, 3-stage ceramic microfiltration (MF) process using 0.1-µm pore size graded permeability membranes (n = 3). In experiment 1, MCC-based beverages at about 6.5% (wt/wt) true protein were formulated at a fat content of 0.15% fat (wt/wt) at 4 different levels of MDWP removal percentages (95.2%, 91.0%, 83.2%, and 69.3%).

The effect of hides and parity on behavior of periparturient dairy cows at pasture

Journal of Dairy Science -

Under natural conditions, most parturient cows seek visual cover or seclude themselves from the herd when calving becomes imminent. Studies on calving site selection of dairy cows housed indoors show that predominantly older and dominant cows calve in secluded areas. This study aimed to investigate whether cows distance themselves further from herd members under spacious outdoor conditions and whether artificial hides on a pasture motivate cows to seek visual isolation from the herd. One hundred eighty-two Danish Holstein cows were allocated to 1 of 13 groups of 14 cows according to expected calving date.

Identification and characterization of dairy cows with different backfat thickness antepartum in relation to postpartum loss of backfat thickness: A cluster analytic approach

Journal of Dairy Science -

The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the interindividual variation in the relationship between antepartum (ap) backfat thickness (BFT) and subsequent BFT loss during early lactation in a large dairy herd using cluster analysis; (2) to compare the serum concentrations of metabolites (nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate), metabolic hormones (leptin and adiponectin), and an inflammatory marker (haptoglobin) among the respective clusters; and (3) to compare lactation performance and uterine health status in the different clusters.

Role of CSN2, CSN3, and BLG genes and the polygenic background in the cattle milk protein profile

Journal of Dairy Science -

To devise better selection strategies in dairy cattle breeding programs, a deeper knowledge of the role of the major genes encoding for milk protein fractions is required. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the CSN2, CSN3, and BLG genotypes on individual protein fractions (αS1-CN, αS2-CN, β-CN, κ-CN, β-LG, α-LA) expressed qualitatively as percentages of total nitrogen content (% N), quantitatively as contents in milk (g/L), and as daily production levels (g/d). Individual milk samples were collected from 1,264 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 commercial herds in Trento Province (northeast Italy).

Implementation of compact calving at the farm level: A qualitative analysis of farmers operating pasture-based dairy systems in Ireland

Journal of Dairy Science -

Pasture-based dairy systems aim to maximize the proportion of grazed pasture in the cow's diet by having a compact calving season that coincides with the onset of the grass growing season. In Ireland, where pasture-based systems are dominant, a key performance indicator that reflects the degree of compact calving is referred to as 6-wk calving rate (6-wk CR). Although the industry target is 90%, the national average 6-wk CR in Ireland is currently 67%. The aim of this study was to use qualitative research to understand in depth farmers' experiences in implementing a high 6-wk CR.

Identifying genetic variants and pathways influencing daughter averages for twinning in North American Holstein cattle and evaluating the potential for genomic selection

Journal of Dairy Science -

Multiple birth in dairy cattle is a detrimental trait both economically for producers and for animal health. Genetics of twinning is complex and has led to several quantitative trait loci regions being associated with increased twinning. To identify variants associated with this trait, calving records from 2 time periods were used to estimate daughter averages for twinning for Holstein bulls. Multiple analyses were conducted and compared including GWAS, genomic prediction, and gene set enrichment analysis for pathway detection.

Plasma essential amino acid concentration and profile are associated with performance of lactating dairy cows as revealed through meta-analysis and hierarchical clustering

Journal of Dairy Science -

Our aim was to explore whether changes in plasma essential AA (EAA) concentration ([EAA]p) or profile (defined here as the molar proportion of individual [EAA]p relative to the total [EAA]p) may serve as an indicator of the EAA status of a cow. We undertook a meta-analysis with the objectives to determine if different plasma EAA profiles exist among cows and to explore the association of [EAA]p or the profile of EAA with lactating cow performance and measures of N utilization. We hypothesized the existence of differences in [EAA]p and different plasma EAA profile for cows with greater milk output, feed efficiency, and greater N use efficiency (NUE; milk true protein-N:N intake) compared with cows with lower milk output, feed efficiency, and lower NUE.

Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of a rapid mastitis test kit, bacterial culture, and PCR for detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus species, and coliforms in bovine milk samples

Journal of Dairy Science -

Our objectives were to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid and novel immunochromatography-based mastitis kit that includes 3 independent tests to detect coliforms (Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae), Streptococcus spp., and Staphylococcus aureus. The kit was developed to facilitate diagnostic-based mastitis treatment. Validation of the kit was based on 154 aseptically collected mastitis samples from 2 clinical herds (clinical population) and 120 milk samples from 3 nonclinical herds (nonclinical population) without clinical cases at the time of enrollment.

Interpretive Summaries, May 2022

Journal of Dairy Science -

Invited review: Lethal heat stress: The putative pathophysiology of a deadly disorder in dairy cattle. By Burhans et al., page 3716. Morbidity and mortality are underappreciated consequences of heat stress. The etiology of lethal heat stress is excessive heat burden, but the pathogenesis is not definitively established in farm animals and especially in dairy cattle. However, considering what is known and assimilating extrapolated information from other species provides strong clues to the chronology of how and why dairy cows succumb to lethal heat stress.

Fatty acid profile characterization in colostrum, transition milk, and mature milk of primi- and multiparous cows during the first week of lactation

Journal of Dairy Science -

The specific fatty acid (FA) profile of colostrum may indicate a biological requirement for neonatal calves. The objective of this study was to characterize the FA profile and yields in colostrum, transition milk, and mature milk in primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) cows. Colostrum was milked from 10 PP and 10 MP Holstein cows fed the same pre- and postpartum rations. Milkings (M) 2 to 5 and 12 were respectively termed transition and mature milk. Overall, short-chain FA (C4:0 and C6:0) were 61 and 50% lower in colostrum than mature milk, respectively.

Corrigendum to “Fatty acid profile characterization in colostrum, transition milk, and mature milk of primi- and multiparous cows during the first week of lactation” (J. Dairy Sci. 105:2612–2630)*†

Journal of Dairy Science -

The authors report that the original version of the above article included small mistakes in the text regarding the calculation of percentage increases. These errors do not change the interpretation of the data in the main text or the conclusions; the tables and figures are correct. A corrected and final version of the article follows.

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